New study shakes the roots of the dinosaur family tree
By ps748 from University of Cambridge - Department of Earth Sciences. Published on Mar 22, 2017.
For 130 years palaeontologists have been working with a classification system in which dinosaur species have been placed in to two distinct categories: Ornithischia and Saurischia. But now, after careful analysis of dozens of fossil skeletons and tens of thousands of anatomical characters, the researchers have concluded that these long-accepted familial groupings may, in fact, be wrong and that the traditional names need to be completely altered.
The classification of dinosaurs dates back to Victorian times. Dinosaurs were first recognised as a unique group of fossil reptiles in 1842 as a result of the work of the anatomist, Professor Richard Owen (who later went on to found the Natural History Museum in London). Over subsequent decades, various species were named as more and more fossils were found and identified. During the latter half of the 19th century it was realised that dinosaurs were anatomically diverse and attempts were made to classify them into groups that shared particular features.
It was Harry Govier Seeley, a palaeontologist trained in Cambridge under the renowned geologist Adam Sedgwick, who determined that dinosaurs fell quite neatly into two distinct groupings, or clades; Saurischia or Ornithischia. This classification was based on the arrangement of the creatures’ hip bones and in particular whether they displayed a lizard-like pattern (Saurischia) or a bird-like one (Ornithischia).
As more dinosaurs were described it became clear that they belonged to three distinct lineages; Ornithischia, Sauropodomorpha and Theropoda. In 1887 Seeley placed the sauropodomorphs (which included the huge ‘classic’ dinosaurs such as Diplodocus and Brontosaurus) together with the theropods (which included T. rex), in the Saurischia. The ornithischians and saurischians were at first thought to be unrelated, each having a different set of ancestors, but later study showed that they all evolved from a single common ancestor.
This new analysis of dinosaurs and their near relatives, published today in the journal Nature, concludes that the ornithischians need to be grouped with the theropods, to the exclusion of the sauropodomorphs. It has long been known that birds (with their obviously ‘bird-like’ hips) evolved from theropod dinosaurs (with their lizard-like hips). However, the re-grouping of dinosaurs proposed in this study shows that both ornithischians AND theropods had the potential to evolve a bird-like hip arrangement- they just did so at different times in their history.
Lead author, Matthew Baron, says:
“When we started our analysis, we puzzled as to why some ancient ornithischians appeared anatomically similar to theropods. Our fresh study suggested that these two groups were indeed part of the same clade. This conclusion came as quite a shock since it ran counter to everything we’d learned.”
“The carnivorous theropods were more closely related to the herbivorous ornithischians and, what’s more, some animals, such as Diplodocus, would fall outside the traditional grouping that we called dinosaurs. This meant we would have to change the definition of the ‘dinosaur’ to make sure that, in the future, Diplodocus and its near relatives could still be classed as dinosaurs.”
The revised grouping of Ornithischia and Theropoda has been named the Ornithoscelida which revives a name originally coined by the evolutionary biologist, Thomas Henry Huxley in 1870.
Co-author, Dr David Norman, of the University of Cambridge, says:
“The repercussions of this research are both surprising and profound. The bird-hipped dinosaurs, so often considered paradoxically named because they appeared to have nothing to do with bird origins, are now firmly attached to the ancestry of living birds.”
For 130 years palaeontologists have considered the phylogeny of the dinosaurs in a certain way. Our research indicates they need to look again at the creatures’ evolutionary history. This is simply science in action. You draw conclusions from one body of evidence and then new data or theories present themselves and you have to suddenly reconsider and adapt your thinking. All the major textbooks covering the topic of the evolution of the vertebrates will need to be re-written if our suggestion survives academic scrutiny.”
While analysing the dinosaur family trees the team arrived at another unexpected conclusion. For many years, it was thought that dinosaurs originated in the southern hemisphere on the ancient continent known as Gondwana. The oldest dinosaur fossils have been recovered from South America suggesting the earliest dinosaurs originated there. But as a result of a re-examination of key taxa it’s now thought they could just as easily have originated on the northern landmass known as Laurasia, though it must be remembered that the continents were much closer together at this time.
Co-author, Prof Paul Barrett, of the Natural History Museum, says:
"This study radically redraws the dinosaur family tree, providing a new framework for unravelling the evolution of their key features, biology and distribution through time. If we're correct, it explains away many prior inconsistencies in our knowledge of dinosaur anatomy and relationships and it also highlights several new questions relating to the pace and geographical setting of dinosaur origins".
The research was funded through a Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) CASE studentship.
Matthew Baron et al: 'A new hypothesis of dinosaur relationships and early dinosaur evolution' Nature, 23 March 2017
A short video guide has been prepared by the Natural History Museum to accompany this paper.
More than a century of theory about the evolutionary history of dinosaurs has been turned on its head following the publication of new research from scientists at the University of Cambridge and Natural History Museum in London. Their work suggests that the family groupings need to be rearranged, re-defined and re-named and also that dinosaurs may have originated in the northern hemisphere rather than the southern, as current thinking goes.
When did making mountains the modern way begin?
From Department of Earth Sciences. Published on Mar 14, 2017.What with ‘tectonic shifts’ and ‘tectonic proportions’, the processes and terminology of Earth’s major structural change or tectonism have invaded everyday language. Now geological research is adding a new dimension – ‘changing tectonic regimes’, the US presidency comes to mind. So what is a ‘change in tectonic regime’?
Simple rule predicts when an ice age ends
From Department of Earth Sciences. Published on Feb 27, 2017.A simple rule can accurately predict when Earth’s climate warms out of an ice age, according to a new study published in Nature. Researchers from UCL, University of Cambridge and University of Louvain have combined existing ideas to solve the problem of which solar energy peaks in the last 2.6 million years led to the melting of the ice sheets and the start of a warm period.
Fossil corset-animals (loriciferans) help solve Darwin’s dilemma
From Department of Earth Sciences. Published on Feb 13, 2017.The living corset-animals (loriciferans) are a remarkable group of miniscule, seabed dwelling creatures, which were first found in the 1980s. Now, the discovery by palaeontologists Tom Harvey and Nick Butterfield of the loriciferans’ deep ancestry in 490 million year old Cambrian strata is helping to rewrite the story of the Cambrian explosion of life and resolve what is known as Darwin’s dilemma.
Earth Sciences students winning prizes
From Department of Earth Sciences. Published on Feb 13, 2017.Congratulations to our students who have recently won prizes.
Tools of the Trade
From Department of Earth Sciences. Published on Feb 13, 2017.A display showcasing a selection of the Sedgwick Museum’s unique historic collection of geological hammers.
The bicentenary of a pioneering account of the Geology of Cambridgeshire
From Department of Earth Sciences. Published on Feb 13, 2017.The first account of the geology of Cambridgeshire was published 200 years ago. Written by the Reverend Professor John Hailstone FRS (1759-1847), the ‘Outline of the Geology of Cambridgeshire’ appeared in the third volume of the Transactions of the Geological Society of London.
Bag-like sea creature was humans’ oldest known ancestor
By tdk25 from University of Cambridge - Department of Earth Sciences. Published on Jan 30, 2017.
Researchers have identified traces of what they believe is the earliest known prehistoric ancestor of humans – a microscopic, bag-like sea creature, which lived about 540 million years ago.
Named Saccorhytus, after the sack-like features created by its elliptical body and large mouth, the species is new to science and was identified from microfossils found in China. It is thought to be the most primitive example of a so-called “deuterostome” – a broad biological category that encompasses a number of sub-groups, including the vertebrates.
If the conclusions of the study, published in the journal Nature, are correct, then Saccorhytus was the common ancestor of a huge range of species, and the earliest step yet discovered on the evolutionary path that eventually led to humans, hundreds of millions of years later.
Modern humans are, however, unlikely to perceive much by way of a family resemblance. Saccorhytus was about a millimetre in size, and probably lived between grains of sand on the seabed. Its features were spectacularly preserved in the fossil record – and intriguingly, the researchers were unable to find any evidence that the animal had an anus.
The study was carried out by an international team of academics, including researchers from the University of Cambridge in the UK and Northwest University in Xi’an China, with support from other colleagues at institutions in China and Germany.
Simon Conway Morris, Professor of Evolutionary Palaeobiology and a Fellow of St John’s College, University of Cambridge, said: “We think that as an early deuterostome this may represent the primitive beginnings of a very diverse range of species, including ourselves. To the naked eye, the fossils we studied look like tiny black grains, but under the microscope the level of detail is jaw-dropping. All deuterostomes had a common ancestor, and we think that is what we are looking at here.”
Degan Shu, from Northwest University, added: “Our team has notched up some important discoveries in the past, including the earliest fish and a remarkable variety of other early deuterostomes. Saccorhytus now gives us remarkable insights into the very first stages of the evolution of a group that led to the fish, and ultimately, to us.”
Most other early deuterostome groups are from about 510 to 520 million years ago, when they had already begun to diversify into not just the vertebrates, but the sea squirts, echinoderms (animals such as starfish and sea urchins) and hemichordates (a group including things like acorn worms). This level of diversity has made it extremely difficult to work out what an earlier, common ancestor might have looked like.
The Saccorhytus microfossils were found in Shaanxi Province, in central China, and pre-date all other known deuterostomes. By isolating the fossils from the surrounding rock, and then studying them both under an electron microscope and using a CT scan, the team were able to build up a picture of how Saccorhytus might have looked and lived. This revealed features and characteristics consistent with current assumptions about primitive deuterostomes.
Dr Jian Han, of Northwest University, said: “We had to process enormous volumes of limestone – about three tonnes – to get to the fossils, but a steady stream of new finds allowed us to tackle some key questions: was this a very early echinoderm, or something even more primitive? The latter now seems to be the correct answer.”
In the early Cambrian period, the region would have been a shallow sea. Saccorhytus was so small that it probably lived in between individual grains of sediment on the sea bed.
The study suggests that its body was bilaterally symmetrical – a characteristic inherited by many of its descendants, including humans – and was covered with a thin, relatively flexible skin. This in turn suggests that it had some sort of musculature, leading the researchers to conclude that it could have made contractile movements, and got around by wriggling.
Perhaps its most striking feature, however, was its rather primitive means of eating food and then dispensing with the resulting waste. Saccorhytus had a large mouth, relative to the rest of its body, and probably ate by engulfing food particles, or even other creatures.
A crucial observation are small conical structures on its body. These may have allowed the water that it swallowed to escape and so were perhaps the evolutionary precursor of the gills we now see in fish. But the researchers were unable to find any evidence that the creature had an anus. “If that was the case, then any waste material would simply have been taken out back through the mouth, which from our perspective sounds rather unappealing,” Conway Morris said.
The findings also provide evidence in support of a theory explaining the long-standing mismatch between fossil evidence of prehistoric life, and the record provided by biomolecular data, known as the “molecular clock”.
Technically, it is possible to estimate roughly when species diverged by looking at differences in their genetic information. In principle, the longer two groups have evolved separately, the greater the biomolecular difference between them should be, and there are reasons to think this process is more or less clock-like.
Unfortunately, before a point corresponding roughly to the time at which Saccorhytus was wriggling in the mud, there are scarcely any fossils available to match the molecular clock’s predictions. Some researchers have theorised that this is because before a certain point, many of the creatures they are searching for were simply too small to leave much of a fossil record. The microscopic scale of Saccorhytus, combined with the fact that it is probably the most primitive deuterostome yet discovered, appears to back this up.
The findings are published in Nature. Reference: Jian Han, Simon Conway Morris, Qiang Ou, Degan Shu and Hai Huang. Meiofaunal deuterostomes from the basal Cambrian of Shaanxi (China). DOI: 10.1038/nature21072.
Inset image: Photographs of the fossils show the spectacularly detailed levels of preservation which allowed researchers to identify and study the creature. Credit: Jian Han.
A tiny sea creature identified from fossils found in China may be the earliest known step on an evolutionary path that eventually led to the emergence of humans
Antarctic Ice Sheet study reveals 8,000-year record of climate change
By sjr81 from University of Cambridge - Department of Earth Sciences. Published on Dec 12, 2016.
Results of the study, co-authored by Michael Weber, a paleoclimatologist and visiting scientist at the University of Cambridge, along with colleagues from the USA, New Zealand and Germany, are published this week in the journal Nature.
Global climate models that look at the last several thousand years have failed to account for the amount of climate variability captured in the paleoclimate record, according to lead author Pepijn Bakker, a climate modeller from the MARUM Center for Marine Environmental Studies at the University of Bremen in Germany.
The researchers first turned their attention to the Scotia Sea. “Most icebergs calving off the Antarctic Ice Sheet travel through this region because of the atmospheric and oceanic circulation,” explained Weber. “The icebergs contain gravel that drop into the sediment on the ocean floor – and analysis and dating of such deposits shows that for the last 8,000 years, there were centuries with more gravel and those with less.”
The research team’s hypothesis is that climate modellers have historically overlooked one crucial element in the overall climate system. They discovered that the centuries-long phases of enhanced and reduced Antarctic ice mass loss documented over the past 8,000 years have had a cascading effect on the entire climate system.
Using sophisticated computer modelling, the researchers traced the variability in iceberg calving (ice that breaks away from glaciers) to small changes in ocean temperatures.
“There is a natural variability in the deeper part of the ocean adjacent to the Antarctic Ice Sheet that causes small but significant changes in temperatures,” said co-author Andreas Schmittner, a climate modeller from Oregon State University. “When the ocean temperatures warm, it causes more direct melting of the ice sheet below the surface, and it increases the number of icebergs that calve off the ice sheet.”
Those two factors combine to provide an influx of fresh water into the Southern Ocean during these warm regimes, according to Peter Clark, a paleoclimatologist from Oregon State University, and co-author on the study.
“The introduction of that cold, fresh water lessens the salinity and cools the surface temperatures, at the same time, stratifying the layers of water,” he said. “The cold, fresh water freezes more easily, creating additional sea ice despite warmer temperatures that are down hundreds of meters below the surface.”
The discovery may help explain why sea ice is currently expanding in the Southern Ocean despite global warming, the researchers say.
“This response is well-known, but what is less-known is that the input of fresh water also leads to changes far away in the northern hemisphere, because it disrupts part of the global ocean circulation,” explained Nick Golledge from the University of Wellington, New Zealand, an ice-sheet modeller and study co-author. “Meltwater from the Antarctic won’t just raise global sea level, but might also amplify climate changes around the world. Some parts of the North Atlantic may end up with warmer temperatures as a consequence of part of Antarctica melting.”
Golledge used a computer model to simulate how the Antarctic Ice Sheet changed as it came out of the last ice age and into the present, warm period.
"The integration of data and models provides further evidence that the Antarctic Ice Sheet has experienced much greater natural variability in the past than previously anticipated,” added Weber. “We should therefore be concerned that it will possibly act very dynamically in the future, too, specifically when it comes to projecting future sea-level rise.”
Two years ago Weber led another study, also published in Nature, which found that the Antarctic Ice Sheet collapsed repeatedly and abruptly at the end of the Last Ice Age to 19,000 to 9,000 years ago.
An international team of researchers has found that the Antarctic Ice Sheet plays a major role in regional and global climate variability – a discovery that may also help explain why sea ice in the Southern Hemisphere has been increasing despite the warming of the rest of the Earth.
Curious Objects at the University Library
From Department of Earth Sciences. Published on Nov 07, 2016.Curious Objects – an exhibition of ‘some unusual and unexpected items’ from the University Library’s collection runs from 3 Nov 2016 - 31 March 2017 at the Milstein Exhibition Centre, Cambridge University Library, West Road, Cambridge CB3 9DR. Free entry.
Graduate Research Opportunities
From Department of Earth Sciences. Published on Nov 02, 2016.A full list of PhD topics for students hoping to start PhDs in 2017 with the Cambridge NERC DTP - Earth Sciences are now online.
Fossilised dinosaur brain tissue identified for the first time
By sc604 from University of Cambridge - Department of Earth Sciences. Published on Oct 27, 2016.
An unassuming brown pebble, found more than a decade ago by a fossil hunter in Sussex, has been confirmed as the first example of fossilised brain tissue from a dinosaur.
The fossil, most likely from a species closely related to Iguanodon, displays distinct similarities to the brains of modern-day crocodiles and birds. Meninges – the tough tissues surrounding the actual brain – as well as tiny capillaries and portions of adjacent cortical tissues have been preserved as mineralised ‘ghosts’.
The results are reported in a Special Publication of the Geological Society of London, published in tribute to Professor Martin Brasier of the University of Oxford, who died in 2014. Brasier and Dr David Norman from the University of Cambridge co-ordinated the research into this particular fossil during the years prior to Brasier’s untimely death in a road traffic accident.
The fossilised brain, found by fossil hunter Jamie Hiscocks near Bexhill in Sussex in 2004, is most likely from a species similar to Iguanodon: a large herbivorous dinosaur that lived during the Early Cretaceous Period, about 133 million years ago.
Finding fossilised soft tissue, especially brain tissue, is very rare, which makes understanding the evolutionary history of such tissue difficult. “The chances of preserving brain tissue are incredibly small, so the discovery of this specimen is astonishing,” said co-author Dr Alex Liu of Cambridge’s Department of Earth Sciences, who was one of Brasier’s PhD students in Oxford at the time that studies of the fossil began.
According to the researchers, the reason this particular piece of brain tissue has been so well-preserved is that the dinosaur’s brain was essentially ‘pickled’ in a highly acidic and low-oxygen body of water – similar to a bog or swamp – shortly after its death. This allowed the soft tissues to become mineralised before they decayed away completely, so that they could be preserved.
“What we think happened is that this particular dinosaur died in or near a body of water, and its head ended up partially buried in the sediment at the bottom,” said Norman. “Since the water had little oxygen and was very acidic, the soft tissues of the brain were likely preserved and cast before the rest of its body was buried in the sediment.”
Working with colleagues from the University of Western Australia, the researchers used scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques in order to identify the tough membranes, or meninges, that surrounded the brain itself, as well as strands of collagen and blood vessels. Structures that could represent tissues from the brain cortex (its outer layer of neural tissue), interwoven with delicate capillaries, also appear to be present. The structure of the fossilised brain, and in particular that of the meninges, shows similarities with the brains of modern-day descendants of dinosaurs, namely birds and crocodiles.
In typical reptiles, the brain has the shape of a sausage, surrounded by a dense region of blood vessels and thin-walled vascular chambers (sinuses) that serve as a blood drainage system. The brain itself only takes up about half of the space within the cranial cavity.
In contrast, the tissue in the fossilised brain appears to have been pressed directly against the skull, raising the possibility that some dinosaurs had large brains which filled much more of the cranial cavity. However, the researchers caution against drawing any conclusions about the intelligence of dinosaurs from this particular fossil, and say that it is most likely that during death and burial the head of this dinosaur became overturned, so that as the brain decayed, gravity caused it to collapse and become pressed against the bony roof of the cavity.
“As we can’t see the lobes of the brain itself, we can’t say for sure how big this dinosaur’s brain was,” said Norman. “Of course, it’s entirely possible that dinosaurs had bigger brains than we give them credit for, but we can’t tell from this specimen alone. What’s truly remarkable is that conditions were just right in order to allow preservation of the brain tissue – hopefully this is the first of many such discoveries.”
“I have always believed I had something special. I noticed there was something odd about the preservation, and soft tissue preservation did go through my mind. Martin realised its potential significance right at the beginning, but it wasn’t until years later that its true significance came to be realised,” said paper co-author Jamie Hiscocks, the man who discovered the specimen. “In his initial email to me, Martin asked if I’d ever heard of dinosaur brain cells being preserved in the fossil record. I knew exactly what he was getting at. I was amazed to hear this coming from a world renowned expert like him.”
The research was funded in part by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) and Christ’s College, Cambridge.
Martin D. Brasier et al.’ Remarkable preservation of brain tissues in an Early Cretaceous iguanodontian dinosaur.’ Earth System Evolution and Early Life: a Celebration of the Work of Martin Brasier. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 448. (2016). DOI: 10.1144/SP448.3
Researchers have identified the first known example of fossilised brain tissue in a dinosaur from Sussex. The tissues resemble those seen in modern crocodiles and birds.
Cambridge's postgraduate pioneers
By ta385 from University of Cambridge - Department of Earth Sciences. Published on Oct 12, 2016.
Jonny Hanson, Department of Geography
Postgraduate students at Cambridge walk in the footsteps of giants – Francis Crick, Elizabeth Blackburn, Stephen Hawking, Iris Murdoch and Eric Hobsbawm all pursued PhD research at the University.
International team head to Papua New Guinea to measure volcanic carbon degassing
From Department of Earth Sciences. Published on Sep 01, 2016.An international team of scientists is traveling to the islands of Papua New Guinea this September to study degassing from active volcanoes in remote jungles there. Some of these volcanoes are among the most active on Earth, ejecting a significant proportion of global volcanic gases into the atmosphere.
Mistaken Point - Canada's 10th geological World Heritage Site
From Department of Earth Sciences. Published on Aug 02, 2016.The ancient rugged coastline of Mistaken Point on Newfoundland’s Avalon Peninsula face the winds and waves of the Atlantic Ocean. It can be a difficult place to work, but nevertheless it has been a mecca for geologists for over several decades now.
Carbon dioxide can be stored underground for ten times the length needed to avoid climatic impact
By jeh98 from University of Cambridge - Department of Earth Sciences. Published on Jul 28, 2016.
New research shows that natural accumulations of carbon dioxide (CO2) that have been trapped underground for around 100,000 years have not significantly corroded the rocks above, suggesting that storing CO2 in reservoirs deep underground is much safer and more predictable over long periods of time than previously thought.
These findings, published today in the journal Nature Communications, demonstrate the viability of a process called carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a solution to reducing carbon emissions from coal and gas-fired power stations, say researchers.
CCS involves capturing the carbon dioxide produced at power stations, compressing it, and pumping it into reservoirs in the rock more than a kilometre underground.
The CO2 must remain buried for at least 10,000 years to avoid the impacts on climate. One concern is that the dilute acid, formed when the stored CO2 dissolves in water present in the reservoir rocks, might corrode the rocks above and let the CO2 escape upwards.
By studying a natural reservoir in Utah, USA, where CO2 released from deeper formations has been trapped for around 100,000 years, a Cambridge-led research team has now shown that CO2 can be securely stored underground for far longer than the 10,000 years needed to avoid climatic impacts.
Their new study shows that the critical component in geological carbon storage, the relatively impermeable layer of “cap rock” that retains the CO2, can resist corrosion from CO2-saturated water for at least 100,000 years.
“Carbon capture and storage is seen as essential technology if the UK is to meet its climate change targets,” says principle investigator Professor Mike Bickle, Director of the Cambridge Centre for Carbon Capture and Storage at the University of Cambridge.
“A major obstacle to the implementation of CCS is the uncertainty over the long-term fate of the CO2 which impacts regulation, insurance, and who assumes the responsibility for maintaining CO2 storage sites. Our study demonstrates that geological carbon storage can be safe and predictable over many hundreds of thousands of years.”
The key component in the safety of geological storage of CO2 is an impermeable cap rock over the porous reservoir in which the CO2 is stored. Although the CO2 will be injected as a dense fluid, it is still less dense than the brines originally filling the pores in the reservoir sandstones, and will rise until trapped by the relatively impermeable cap rocks.
“Some earlier studies, using computer simulations and laboratory experiments, have suggested that these cap rocks might be progressively corroded by the CO2-charged brines, formed as CO2 dissolves, creating weaker and more permeable layers of rock several metres thick and jeopardising the secure retention of the CO2,” explains lead author Dr Niko Kampman.
“However, these studies were either carried out in the laboratory over short timescales or based on theoretical models. Predicting the behaviour of CO2 stored underground is best achieved by studying natural CO2 accumulations that have been retained for periods comparable to those needed for effective storage.”
To better understand these effects, this study, funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council and the UK Department of Energy and Climate Change, examined a natural reservoir where large natural pockets of CO2 have been trapped in sedimentary rocks for hundreds of thousands of years. Sponsored by Shell, the team drilled deep down below the surface into one of these natural CO2 reservoirs to recover samples of the rock layers and the fluids confined in the rock pores.
The team studied the corrosion of the minerals comprising the rock by the acidic carbonated water, and how this has affected the ability of the cap rock to act as an effective trap over geological periods of time. Their analysis studied the mineralogy and geochemistry of cap rock and included bombarding samples of the rock with neutrons at a facility in Germany to better understand any changes that may have occurred in the pore structure and permeability of the cap rock.
They found that the CO2 had very little impact on corrosion of the minerals in the cap rock, with corrosion limited to a layer only 7cm thick. This is considerably less than the amount of corrosion predicted in some earlier studies, which suggested that this layer might be many metres thick.
The researchers also used computer simulations, calibrated with data collected from the rock samples, to show that this layer took at least 100,000 years to form, an age consistent with how long the site is known to have contained CO2.
The research demonstrates that the natural resistance of the cap rock minerals to the acidic carbonated waters makes burying CO2 underground a far more predictable and secure process than previously estimated.
“With careful evaluation, burying carbon dioxide underground will prove very much safer than emitting CO2 directly to the atmosphere,” says Bickle.
The Cambridge research into the CO2 reservoirs in Utah was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (CRIUS consortium of Cambridge, Manchester and Leeds universities and the British Geological Survey) and the Department of Energy and Climate Change.
The project involved an international consortium of researchers led by Cambridge, together with Aarchen University (Germany), Utrecht University (Netherlands), Utah State University (USA), the Julich Centre for Neutron Science, (Garching, Germany), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (USA), the British Geological Survey, and Shell Global Solutions International (Netherlands).
N. Kampman, et al. "Observational evidence confirms modelling of the long-term integrity of CO2-reservoir caprocks" Nature Communications 28 July 2016.
Study of natural-occurring 100,000 year-old CO2 reservoirs shows no significant corroding of ‘cap rock’, suggesting the greenhouse gas hasn’t leaked back out - one of the main concerns with greenhouse gas reduction proposal of carbon capture and storage.
An underestimated Kevan
From Department of Earth Sciences. Published on Jul 21, 2016.Douglas Palmer on the Sedgwick Museum’s giant Pliosaurus cf. kevani in the latest edition of Geoscientist
Oesia – a new tube worm from deep Cambrian times
From Department of Earth Sciences. Published on Jul 21, 2016.Collections up close, Sedgwick Museum of Earth Sciences
Professor Harry Elderfield tribute
From Department of Earth Sciences. Published on Jul 15, 2016.
Virtual Scilla Collection project
From Department of Earth Sciences. Published on Jul 12, 2016.
Fingerprinting rare earth elements from the air
By lw355 from University of Cambridge - Department of Earth Sciences. Published on Jul 01, 2016.
Next time you use your mobile phone, spare a moment for the tiny yet vital ingredients that make this and many other technologies possible – the rare earth elements (REEs).
Used in computers, fibre optic cables, aircraft components and even the anti-counterfeiting system in euro notes, these materials are crucial for an estimated £3 trillion worth of industries, with demand set to increase over the coming decades.
Currently, more than 95% of the global demand for the REEs is met by a single mine in China. The security of the future supply of these 17 critical metals, which include neodymium, europium, terbium, dysprosium and yttrium, is a major concern for European governments, and the identification of potential REE resources outside China is seen as a high priority.
Over the past year, Drs Sally Gibson, Teal Riley and David Neave have been working together through a University of Cambridge–BAS Joint Innovation Project (see panel) on a remote sensing technique that could aid the identification of REEs in rocks anywhere in the world. The project brings together expertise in remote sensing, geochemistry and mineralogy from both institutes to take advantage of the properties that make the metals so special.
“Despite their name, the rare earth elements are not particularly rare and are as abundant in the Earth’s crust as elements such as copper and tin,” explains Riley from BAS. “However, to be extractable in an economic way, they need to be concentrated into veins or sediments.” It’s the identification of these concentrations that is critical for the future security of supply. REEs all have an atomic structure that causes them to react to photons of light through a series of electronic transitions. This gives them the magnetic and electrical properties for which they are prized in plasma TVs, wind turbines and electric car batteries. And it also means that for every photon of light they absorb, they reflect other photons in a unique way – it is this property that the researchers have latched onto as a means of tracking them down.
“The light they reflect is so specific that it’s like a fingerprint, one that we can capture using sensors that pick up light emissions,” explains Gibson, from Cambridge’s Department of Earth Sciences. “The difficulty, however, is that in naturally occurring rocks and minerals, the rare earth element emission spectra are mixed up with those of other elements. It’s like looking at overlapping fingerprints – the challenge was to work out how to tease these spectral fingerprints apart.”
Gibson has over 20 years’ experience investigating how REEs are generated during the melting of the Earth’s mantle. “Collective understanding of the geological make-up of the world is now good enough that we know where to look for these rocks – at sites of a certain type of past tectonic activity – but even then it’s difficult to find them.”
Riley is the head of the Geological Mapping Group at BAS – his job is to “map the unmapped” areas of the polar region to understand the geological evolution of the continent. Much of his work depends on being able to develop new ways of interrogating satellite- and aircraft-based remote sensing data. “It became a frustration that we could collect data and say generally what was on the ground but that we couldn’t define individual fingerprints, and so we developed the analytical tools to do this.”
Gibson and Neave gathered rocks containing REE-bearing minerals from around the world – sourced from mining companies, museum collections and universities. One such source was the Harker Collection housed in the University’s Sedgwick Museum of Earth Sciences. This collection contains specimens of minerals and rocks rich in REEs that were collected decades previously by geologists who were unaware of their economic importance.
Neave analysed the emission spectrum of each rock and related this to its gross and microscopic composition. From this information he began to untangle the individual fingerprints, resulting in what the researchers believe is the most comprehensive ‘spectral database’ of REEs in their natural state – in rocks.
The next goal is to use this spectral database as a reference source to track down deposits from the air. “Although data from aircraft is now good enough to be analysed in this way, we are waiting for new satellite missions such as the German Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program (EnMAP) to be launched in the next few years,” explains Riley.The plan would then be to carry out reconnaissance sweeps of the most likely terrains and explore the possibility of mining these areas. “Our hope is that this research will help to create an internationally unique and competitive capability to map these surprisingly common – yet difficult to find – materials,” adds Gibson.
Vital to many modern technologies yet mined in few places, the ‘rare earth elements’ are in fact not that rare – they are just difficult to find in concentrations that make them economic to mine. Researchers from Cambridge University and the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) are investigating whether the remarkable properties of these materials can be used to track them down from the air.
The search for rare earth elements is one of a host of ongoing projects between the University and BAS. Like these, a new centre – Aurora Cambridge – will reflect the ethos that innovation developed for the Antarctic is transferable to a global setting.
Aurora Cambridge aims to generate new research and entrepreneurial activity focused on climate change and challenging environments through academic, business and policy partnerships. It will be located at BAS in Cambridge and has been funded by the National Environment Research Council with support from the University.
The building is due to open in 2017; however, 27 University of Cambridge–BAS Joint Innovation Projects are already under way with funding from the Higher Education Funding Council for England – including the development of mapping technologies for rare earth elements led by Drs Sally Gibson and Teal Riley.
Other projects include research on cold-adapted enzymes with potential applications in the biotech industries, remote sensing for conservation of seabirds and marine mammals, and the measurement of coastal vulnerability through sea-level rise. Many involve external industrial partners and other research institutions as well as researchers from BAS and 12 University departments.
“The collaborative projects demonstrate not only the importance of research technology to the Antarctic but also their transferability beyond its shores to a global setting,” explains BAS Director of Innovation Dr Beatrix Schlarb-Ridley. “The SPECTRO-ICE project, for instance, has brought scientists at BAS who are concerned with monitoring the atmosphere above the ice cap together with physicists and mathematicians who are working hard to avoid seeing the atmosphere in their study of the stars – both use similar techniques and need to operate advanced instruments at difficult locations.”
“This is just the beginning,” says BAS Director Professor Jane Francis. “The new innovation centre will help us to extend the range of fruitful partnerships with academia, business, policy makers and the third sector to create tangible benefits for society.”
Chasing the volcano
By tdk25 from University of Cambridge - Department of Earth Sciences. Published on Jul 01, 2016.
Faced with the prospect of an imminent volcanic eruption, most people would head for safety, but for one group of Cambridge research students, the aim is to get as close as they realistically can.
That opportunity suddenly presented itself when, on the night of August 28, 2014, members of the University’s Volcano Seismology group were shaken awake by a series of low-magnitude earthquakes. The tremors were being caused by the movement of an underground channel of molten rock which they had been tracking for 10 days as it forced its way north-east from the Barðarbunga volcano in central Iceland.
The group’s work involves measuring and studying such seismic events, which warn that a volcanic eruption may be about to take place. As it became clear that this was now imminent, the team hastily finished deploying field instruments around the tip of the area where they knew the channel was flowing. Just hours later, it ruptured the Earth’s surface, disgorging huge fountains of magma that reached up to 150 metres high, announcing the start of Iceland’s biggest volcanic event for 200 years.
Click image to enlarge
The story of the group’s dramatic fieldwork – and why it matters – is now the subject of a display at this year’s Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition, which will be taking place in London from 4-10 July 2016.
During the build-up to the eruption, a total of 30,000 mini earthquakes occurred as the molten rock forged a crack through the earth, several kilometres beneath the surface. By analysing these earthquakes, the team were able to understand more about the physical process that was happening under their feet. This knowledge helps to inform both early warning tools that can be used to anticipate a volcanic eruption, and scenario-planning around its potential consequences.
Robert Green, a Seismology PhD student from St John’s College, University of Cambridge, was one of the Cambridge researchers responsible for assessing the tremors around Barðarbunga. “Most people think of a volcano as being a large mountain where molten rock comes straight up from under the ground and erupts directly from the summit, either explosively creating a huge ash cloud, or producing lava which flows down the sides,” he said.
“Those are certainly options, but this one was different. Instead the molten rock moved 46 kilometres underground away from the volcano before it emerged in a completely different place. When it did, the eruption formed a curtain of fire the height of Big Ben.”
Earthquakes such as those measured by Green and his colleagues are caused by the molten flow cracking through rock in the Earth’s crust. As the rocks slide past one another, they cause the ground to shake. In August 2014, it was this seismic activity that indicated that one of these so-called “dyke intrusions” had developed from the Barðarbunga volcano.
The scientific community was quick to respond, deploying researchers from 26 different institutions, including the Cambridge team. This group effectively chased the volcano, travelling in helicopters, snow scooters and offroad vehicles to install seismometers and track its subterranean progress.
They also worked closely with civil and aviation authorities to keep them up to date about potential impact. Airlines feared a repeat of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, when a plume of volcanic ash infamously led to the cancellation of 100,000 flights during the Easter holidays.
When the fissure eruption finally happened, it was at the Holuhraun lava field, the site of a 19th Century volcanic event north of Barðarbunga itself. Some of the Cambridge group’s seismometers had been positioned so close that they had to be hastily retrieved in the face of the advancing lava flow.
The eruption was on a huge scale, lasting from August 2014 until February 2015. During its early stages, about 500 tonnes of rock were flung out of the Earth every second at temperatures of about 1,300 degrees C. The thermal energy was calculated to be equivalent to one Hiroshima atomic bomb being detonated every two minutes for almost six months.
For the researchers, it was an unprecedented opportunity to gather data about the effects of the movement of magma under the ground during such events. “Earthquakes accompanying the movement of magma underground are the best volcano monitoring tool we have, but we don't yet understand the mechanics of it - precisely why, when and where the earthquakes occur, and why, when and where they don't,” said Jenny Woods, another member of the team, based at Cambridge’s Department of Earth Sciences. “These are important things to learn if we want to understand the behaviour of volcanoes and improve eruption prediction.”
In the case of the 2014 eruption, scientists and government teams had to consider the possibility that lava might erupt beneath a local ice cap, causing an ash cloud which could disrupt flights, and a major flood. Even more frightening was the possibility was that it might continue moving until it met another reservoir of molten rock beneath the Askja volcano, triggering a major eruption that would have had devastating consequences for much of northern Iceland.
“There is no certainty during these events that it will even erupt at all,” Green added. “The whole time we were looking at several possible scenarios, one of which was that the lava would just stay in the ground.”
“Tracking the Bárdarbunga intrusion and witnessing the eruption was an utterly surreal experience: arriving in Iceland, deploying instruments in an evacuation zone, being shaken awake by an earthquake, and then being the first group on the scene at the eruption in the middle of the night under the northern lights,” said Woods. “It was a real reminder of the raw power trapped in the earth beneath our feet!”
The study also involved an assessment of the stress changes that occurred within the Earth’s crust as a result of the tremors. These findings could, among other things, help with the assessment of human activities that have a similar effect, not least the highly sensitive question of where and when it is safe to undertake “fracking” for shale gas.
The group’s display at the Royal Society Summer Exhibition, which is aptly entitled “Explosive Earth”, will feature several hands-on activities enabling visitors to discover how researchers monitor the movement of molten rock under the ground, how they triangulate the point of origin from tremors to track the magma’s course, and how an earthquake itself is measured.
In 2014, Cambridge researchers monitored a series of seismic shocks which preceded Iceland’s biggest volcanic eruption in 200 years. The dramatic story of their work, and its scientific value, is now part of this year’s Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition.
By sa605 from University of Cambridge - Department of Earth Sciences. Published on Jun 28, 2016.
Much of the world’s remaining oil and gas is locked under basalt, a rock that has baffled those attempting to ‘see’ through it. Now, thanks to new techniques developed at Cambridge, imaging beneath basalt is opening up vital new hydrocarbon reserves.
By developing a way of imaging beneath the basalt that covers much of the Earth’s surface, Professor Robert White of the Department of Earth Sciences in collaboration with Dr Phil Christie of Schlumberger Gould Research has enabled oil companies to locate potentially important new oil and gas reserves.
The methods pioneered by White & Christie at Cambridge over a decade ago are now implemented with modern technology by oil companies worldwide, helping firms explore the continental margins of northwest Europe, Africa, South America and India, and since 2008 their approach has become the industry standard on basalt dominated continental shelves.
As well as developing techniques to explore new fields, White’s work is helping oil companies reprocess existing survey data, helping them find new oil in previously explored areas.
Working collaboratively with major oil companies, White’s work has given them a valuable competitive advantage, and provided academic researchers with skills to share with other universities from Dalhousie to Durham, and industrial players such as BP and Statoil.
Rising to the energy challenge
As the global population continues to grow and develop, meeting our ever-increasing demand for energy is one of humankind’s greatest challenges. According to oil major BP, global energy consumption is predicted to increase 41% between 2012 and 2035.
Despite the drive to develop renewable sources of energy, hydrocarbons will continue to play a major role for the foreseeable future. The UK government says that 70% of British energy requirements are still likely to be met by oil and gas well into the 2040s.
As demand for hydrocarbons continues to rise, supplies are diminishing. Remaining reserves – either under the sea, in shales and coals, and particularly under basalt and salt – are more challenging to extract.
Basalts cover more than 70% of the Earth’s surface, mostly forming the crust beneath the deep ocean floor. They are also found in many prospective areas in continental margins, as well as on land in India, Siberia and Brazil. Seismic surveying at sea is performed by ships towing long ‘streamers’ up to 12km. Thousands of hydrophones are built into the streamer, and these detect signals from an acoustic source such as airgun arrays. Producing seismic profiles of potential hydrocarbon reserves under basalt, however, is a major challenge because of the rock’s structure and variability.
Imaging through basalt
White’s research has resulted in new seismic imaging techniques capable of ‘seeing’ with greater accuracy the size and shape of potential hydrocarbon reservoirs lying beneath basalt.
He realised that by using two ships instead of one, towing extra-long streamers or using seismometers on the sea bed, and working with low frequencies, extra information could be returned to produce clearer images from below the basalt.
Since the mid-1990s, White has worked with major players in the oil industry to test his research in North Sea oil fields. Together with US oil company Amerada Hess, he used the two-ship approach to successfully image below the basalt layer in the Faroe-Shetland region. After producing a series of regional maps, White’s team then used new ocean bottom seismometers plus new software to process and model these wide-angle seismograms recorded at sea.
Building on this, he helped establish a joint industry-academic partnership with Liverpool University, Badley Geoscience and Schlumberger Gould Research known as iSIMM, which attracted collaboration from eight major oil companies.
Exploring the future
With investment by the UK oil and gas industry put at £13bn in 2014, White’s work looks set to continue to contribute to future exploration around the European Atlantic Margin. And his novel imaging techniques should be used to support future exploration and production license applications, and to advise the industry on exploration and appraisal drilling.
The UK government says that 70% of British energy requirements are still likely to be met by oil and gas well into the 2040s
By sa605 from University of Cambridge - Department of Earth Sciences. Published on Jun 28, 2016.
Around 600 million people live dangerously near one of the Earth’s 500 active volcanoes. Thanks to Cambridge scientists – who over the past 15 years have pioneered new techniques for monitoring volcanic activity – communities across the world are able to make better decisions to protect lives and property.
From Etna and Stromboli, Italy to Iceland’s Eyjafjallajokull and Monserrat’s Soufriere Hills volcano, techniques developed in Cambridge have revolutionised volcano monitoring networks across the world, helping communities better understand the changes that can foreshadow a major eruption.
The application of ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy pioneered at Soufriere Hills by Professor Clive Oppenheimer of the Department of Geography and Dr Marie Edmonds of the Department of Earth Sciences now forms the basis of scanning UV spectrometer networks at 20 other volcanoes worldwide.
By providing better data to decision makers, their research is helping keep vulnerable communities safer from the devastating effects of volcanic eruptions. And in Monserrat, partially destroyed when Soufriere Hills began erupting in 1995, Cambridge science is providing reliable evidence to inform planning decisions as new infrastructure is developed.
Around 600 million people live near the world’s 500 active subaerial volcanoes. At any one time, there will be five volcanoes starting to show new activity and another 10 or 20 with ongoing activity.
The dangers active volcanoes pose are obvious. The ash, gases and lava they emit during an eruption can destroy lives, as well as property, infrastructure and agriculture. The financial impact is enormous. The 2010 eruption of Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajokull caused massive disruption to international air traffic, costing the aviation industry $1.7 billion. And when the Soufriere Hills volcano on Monserrat erupted in 1995, more than 8,000 people – two-thirds of the island’s population – were displaced.
Despite this, understanding which changes in volcanic activity signal that an eruption is more likely has been a challenge for those who study volcanoes, as well as those who live near them.
Mountain of evidence
Oppenheimer and Edmonds have spent years studying the gases volcanoes emit before and during eruptions. Working at Soufriere Hills, they recorded levels of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) to understand how these key gases could be used to better predict volcanic eruptions.
They discovered that SO2 flux is an effective proxy for deep magma supply, and changes in HCl levels a proxy for eruption rate. They also found that monitoring SO2 emissions is essential to assessing volcanic hazard, and that because these emissions vary so widely, continuous monitoring vital.
Chemistry, however, was only half of the story. During their work, Oppenheimer and Edmonds realised that vulcanologists also needed better ways of monitoring these gases.
From the 1970s, gas monitoring at volcanoes relied on the so-called Correlation Spectrometer (COSPEC). Cumbersome and costly, the Cambridge team sought something new, and when in the early 2000s cheap, miniaturised UV spectrometers came onto the market, they recognised their potential.
After adapting the UV spectrometers to monitor volcanic gases, they tested them alongside the COSPEC at Soufriere Hills and at Masaya volcano in Nicaragua. Their results revealed that the UV monitors were just as accurate. And because they were smaller, lighter, cheaper and less power hungry, the new devices could form the basis of a worldwide monitoring system.
[We] rely heavily on these kinds of monitoring data ... to make decisions on hazard mapping, exclusion zone management, land use planning, development and investmentMonserrat Disaster Management Coordination Agency
Because they were smaller, lighter, cheaper and less power hungry, the new devices could form the basis of a worldwide monitoring system
Fingerprinting rare earth elements from the air
From Department of Earth Sciences. Published on Jun 21, 2016.
Explosive Earth: Earthquakes and Eruptions in Iceland
From Department of Earth Sciences. Published on May 24, 2016.
Athena SWAN Bronze award
From Department of Earth Sciences. Published on May 03, 2016.
Bob Carter 1942-2016
From Department of Earth Sciences. Published on Mar 23, 2016.
Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 43, Issue 4
From Department of Earth Sciences. Published on Mar 17, 2016.
Shackleton's geologist - James Mann Wordie (1889-1962)
From Department of Earth Sciences. Published on Feb 16, 2016.
Geological Mapping: Stripping the Land Bare
From Department of Earth Sciences. Published on Sep 17, 2015.
August edition of Nature Geoscience
From Department of Earth Sciences. Published on Aug 17, 2015.
Earthquakes Without Frontiers
From Department of Earth Sciences. Published on Jun 16, 2015.
Congratulations to Professor James Jackson
From Department of Earth Sciences. Published on Jun 04, 2015.
Indian High Commissioner's visit
From Department of Earth Sciences. Published on May 01, 2015.
Congratulations to Dr Peter Friend
From Department of Earth Sciences. Published on Mar 24, 2015.