skip to primary navigationskip to content

Reading Lists

Reading lists for Core & Option courses These are updated as & when possible, if you see any mistakes please contact the library

Michaelmas 2016 Part II Core 1

C1: Geophysics Core Course

Lecture 1 - Alex Copley

Lecture 2

Lecture 3 

Lecture 4

Lecture 5

Lecture 6

Lecture 7

Lecture 8

  • Alisic, L., Gurnis, M., Stadler, G., Burstedde, C., Ghattas, O., 2012. Multi-scale dynamics and rheology of mantle flow with plates. J. Geophys. Res. 117, B10402. doi:10.1029/2012JB009234
  • Copley, A., Avouac, J.-P., Royer, J.-Y., 2010. India-Asia collision and the Cenozoic slowdown of the Indian plate: Implications for the forces driving plate motions. Journal of Geophysical Research 115. doi:10.1029/2009JB006634
  • Forsyth, D., Uyedaf†, S., 1975. On the Relative Importance of the Driving Forces of Plate Motion*. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society 43, 163–200. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.1975.tb00631.x
  • McKenzie, D., Richter, F., 1978. Simple plate models of mantle convection.

Lecture 9 -

  • Austrheim, H., Boundy, T.M., 1994. Pseudotachylytes Generated During Seismic Faulting and Eclogitization of the Deep Crust. Science 265, 82–83.
  • Bjørnerud, M.G., Austrheim, H., Lund, M.G., 2002. Processes leading to eclogitization (densification) of subducted and tectonically buried crust. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 2252. doi:10.1029/2001JB000527
  • Brace, W.F., Kohlstedt, D.L., 1980. Limits on lithospheric stress imposed by laboratory experiments. J. Geophys. Res. 85, 6248–6252. doi:10.1029/JB085iB11p06248
  • Chen, W.-P., Molnar, P., 1983. Focal depths of intracontinental and intraplate earthquakes and their implications for the thermal and mechanical properties of the lithosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 88, 4183–4214. doi:10.1029/JB088iB05p04183 
  • Jackson, J., 2002. Strength of the continental lithosphere: Time to abandon the jelly sandwich? GSA Today 12, 4. doi:10.1130/1052-5173(2002)0122.0.CO;2
  • Jackson, J., McKENZIE, D. a. N., Priestley, K., Emmerson, B., 2008. New views on the structure and rheology of the lithosphere. Journal of the Geological Society 165, 453–465. doi:10.1144/0016-76492007-109
  • Jackson, J.A., Austrheim, H., McKenzie, D., Priestley, K., 2004. Metastability, mechanical strength, and the support of mountain belts. Geology 32, 625–628. doi:10.1130/G20397.1
  • Maggi, A., Jackson, J.A., McKenzie, D., Priestley, K., 2000. Earthquake focal depths, effective elastic thickness, and the strength of the continental lithosphere. Geology 28, 495–498. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(2000)282.0.CO;2
  • McKenzie, D., Jackson, J., Priestley, K., 2005. Thermal structure of oceanic and continental lithosphere. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 233, 337–349. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2005.02.005

Lecture 10 - John Rudge

Lecture 11 Lecture 12 Lecture 13 Lecture 14 Lecture 15

Bickle, M., Chadwick, A., Huppert, H.E., Hallworth, M., Lyle, S., 2007. Modelling carbon dioxide accumulation at Sleipner: Implications for underground carbon storage. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 255, 164–176. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.12.013 Bickle, M.J., 2009. Geological carbon storage. Nature Geosci 2, 815–818. doi:10.1038/ngeo687 Boait, F.C., White, N.J., Bickle, M.J., Chadwick, R.A., Neufeld, J.A., Huppert, H.E., 2012. Spatial and temporal evolution of injected CO2 at the Sleipner Field, North Sea. J. Geophys. Res. 117, B03309. doi:10.1029/2011JB008603 Huppert, H.E., Neufeld, J.A., 2014. The Fluid Mechanics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 46, 255–272. Lyle, S., Huppert, H.E., Hallworth, M., Bickle, M., Chadwick, A., 2005. Axisymmetric gravity currents in a porous medium. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 543, 293–302. doi:10.1017/S0022112005006713 Lecture 16 Huppert, H.E., 1982. The propagation of two-dimensional and axisymmetric viscous gravity currents over a rigid horizontal surface. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 121, 43–58. doi:10.1017/S0022112082001797 Rignot, E., Mouginot, J., Scheuchl, B., 2011. Ice Flow of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Science 333, 1427–1430. doi:10.1126/science.1208336 Zhang, P.-Z., Shen, Z., Wang, M., Gan, W., Bürgmann, R., Molnar, P., Wang, Q., Niu, Z., Sun, J., Wu, J., Hanrong, S., Xinzhao, Y., 2004. Continuous deformation of the Tibetan Plateau from global positioning system data. Geology 32, 809–812. doi:10.1130/G20554.1 Copley, A., McKenzie, D., 2007. Models of crustal flow in the India-Asia collision zone. Geophys. J. Int. 169, 683–698. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2007.03343.x Lecture 17 - David Al-Attar Lecture 18 Lecture 19 French, S.W., Romanowicz, B., 2015. Broad plumes rooted at the base of the Earth’s mantle beneath major hotspots. Nature 525, 95–99. doi:10.1038/nature14876 Fukao, Y., Obayashi, M., 2013. Subducted slabs stagnant above, penetrating through, and trapped below the 660 km discontinuity. J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth 118, 2013JB010466. doi:10.1002/2013JB010466 Woodhouse, J.H., Dziewonski, A.M., 1989. Seismic Modelling of the Earth’s Large-Scale Three-Dimensional Structure. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences 328, 291–308. Lecture 20 Deuss, A., Woodhouse, J., 2001. Seismic Observations of Splitting of the Mid-Transition Zone Discontinuity in Earth’s Mantle. Science 294, 354–357. doi:10.1126/science.1063524 Ritsema, J., van Heijst, H.J., Woodhouse, J.H., 2004. Global transition zone tomography. J. Geophys. Res. 109, B02302. doi:10.1029/2003JB002610 Woodhouse, J.H., Dziewonski, A.M., 1984. Mapping the upper mantle: Three-dimensional modeling of earth structure by inversion of seismic waveforms. J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5953–5986. doi:10.1029/JB089iB07p05953 Zhu, H., Bozda?, E., Peter, D., Tromp, J., 2012. Structure of the European upper mantle revealed by adjoint tomography. Nature Geosci 5, 493–498. doi:10.1038/ngeo1501

Lecture 21

  • Bercovici, D., 2015. Treatise on Geophysics: Volume 7: Mantle dynamics. Elsevier. 2nd edition. doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-53802-4.00125-1. This is available at the Betty & Gordon Moore Library
  • McKenzie, D.P., 1983. The Earth’s MantleSci. Am. 249, 66–78. doi:10.1038/ scientificamerican0983-66.
  • McKenzie, D.P., Richter, F., 1976. Convection Currents in the Earth’s MantleSci. Am. 235, 72–89. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1176-72.
  • Schubert, G., Turcotte, D.L., Olson, P., 2001. Mantle convection in the Earth and Planets. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511612879.

Lecture 22

Lecture 23

Lecture 24

Michaelmas - Core 2

This is the old reading list, when a new one is available it will be updated

Michaelmas Reading List - Core 2: Petrology and Geochemistry

Please note that if references are marked with an asterisk (*) ,they have been highlighted by your lecturers as being particularlyuseful to you.

Book References

These references are for all lectures in this course.

A search in the Library catalogue - Newton - will give you the classmark and location in the Library for each book

  • Bourdon, B. et al, (2003) Uranium-series geochemistry, Review in Mineralogy & Geochemistry, Vol. 52.
  • Dickin, A.P.(2005) 2 nd Ed. Radiogenic isotope geology, Cambridge University Press.
  • Faure, G. (1986) Principles of isotope geology, Wiley.
  • Gill, R. (2010) Igneous rocks and processes : a practical guide, Wiley-Blackwell
  • Hoefs, J. (1997) Stable isotope geochemistry, Springer
  • Mason, B, (1982) Principles of geochemistry, Wiley.
  • Nixon, P.H., (1987) Mantle Xenoliths
  • Nordstrom, D. K. & J. L. Munoz. (1985) Geochemical thermodynamics. (Chapter 4)
  • Powell, R. (1979) Equilibrium thermodynamics in petrology.
  • Rollinson, H.(1993) Using geochemical data: evaluation, presentation, interpretation. Longman Scientific & technical.
  • Spear, F.S. (1993) Metamorphic phase equilibria and pressure-temperature-time paths.
  • Taylor, S.R. & McLennan S.M. (1985) The continental crust, Blackwell Scientific.
  • Wagner G. & Van Den Haute P. (1992) Fission-track dating. Kluwer Academic publishers
  • Yardley, B. (1989) An introduction to metamorphic petrology

Chapters in Edited Volumes

  • Cambell, I., The mantle’s chemical structure. In ‘The Earth‘s mantle: composition, structure and evolution. ’ Ed. I. Jackson (1998) Cambridge University Press
  • Rice J.M. and Ferry J.M. (1982) “Buffering, infiltration and the control of intensive variables during metamorphism.” in Ferry J.M. (ed) Mineralogical Society of America Reviews in Mineralogy, 10, 263-326.
  • Essene. (1983) Geologic thermometry and barometry. IN: Characterization of metamorphism through mineral equilibria, Ferry, J. M. & Burt et al (Eds.) Rev Mineralogy 10, pp153-206.
  • *Carswell, D.A. & Harley, S.L., (1990) Mineral barometry and thermometry. In Eclogite-facies rocks (Ed. Carswell, Blackie). Pages 83-110.

Journal References


If available online the journal title will be hyperlinked to ABSTRACT LEVEL.

A number of these references will be available in the part II/III reprint collection housed in the Library Office. A full listing of what is in this collection is available on the Library website.

Reading - A search in the Library catalogue - LibrarySearch - will give you the classmark and location in the Library for each book

  • B. Mason, (1982) Principles of geochemistry, Wiley
  • Taylor, S.R. & McLennan S.M. (1985) The continental crust, Blackwell Scientific
  • A.P. Dickin, Radiogenic isotope geology, Cambridge University Press, 1995.
  • (Note – there is a second edition of this – 2005)
  • G. Faure, (1986) Principles of isotope geology, Wiley.
  • J. Hoefs, (1997) Stable isotope geochemistry, Springer.
  • H. Rollinson, (1993) Using geochemical data: evaluation, presentation, interpretation. Longman Scientific & technical.
  • J.W. Valley, H.P. Taylor Jr. & J.R. O'Neil, (1986) Stable isotopes in High Temperature Geological Processes, Reviews in Mineralogy, Vol. 16. [Chapters 1, 6, 8 & 9]
  • J.W. Valley, D.R. Cole, (2001) Stable isotopes Geochemistry, Review in Mineralogy & Geochemistry, Vol. 43. [Chapter 5 ]
  • Cerling, T.E. & Craig, H. (1994) Geomorphology and in-situ cosmogenic isotopes. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Science22, 273-317.
  • Uranium-series geochemistry, (2003) Review in Mineralogy & Geochemistry, Vol. 52. [Chapters 1, 3, 4, 9 & 10 ]

Lectures One to Four - Introduction to geochemistry A. V. Turchyn

reading material is available on CamTools

Lecture 1 - Introduction and Major Element Composition

Lecture 2 - Trace Element Partitioning

Lecture 3 - Radiogenic Isotopes

Lecture 4 - Radiogenic Isotopes II


Lecture Five

S A Gibson

Lecture Six


Lecture Seven


Lecture Eight

S A Gibson


Lecture Nine

S A Gibson

Lecture Ten

S A Gibson

Lecture Eleven

S A Gibson

Lecture Twelve

General Reference reading for T J B Holland's section

Philpotts & Ague. (2008) Principles of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology, Cambridge University Press (2nd ed).

T J B Holland

Lectures Thirteen & Fourteen


T J B Holland

General reading

  • A Philpotts and J Ague. ‘Principles of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology’.
  • R Vernon and G Clarke. ‘Principles of Metamorphic Petrology’.
      Schreinemakers/projections (Lectures 1 & 2)
    • Nordstrom & Munoz. 1985. ‘Geochemical thermodynamics'. Chapter 4. (good intro)
    • Yardley, B. 1989. ‘An introduction to metamorphic petrology'. Appendix. (basic intro)
    • Spear 1993. ‘Metamorphic phase equilibria and pressure-temperature-time paths'. 
      Chapters 5,8.
    • Philpotts and Ague. ‘Principles of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology'. Chapter 8.
    •  Pelites (2 & 3)
    • Yardley, B. 1989. ‘An introduction to metamorphic petrology'. Chapter 3.
    • Droop 1981. Alpine metamorphism of pelitic schists in the south east Tauern Window,
    •  Austria. Schweiz Min und Pet Mitt 61, 237-273.
    •  Mahar et al. 1997. The effect of Mn on mineral stability in metapelites. J Met Geol, 15, 223-238.
    • Philpotts and Ague. ‘Principles of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology'. Chapter 19.
      Weller et al 2013. Quantifying Barrovian metamorphism in the Danba Structural,


      Culmination of eastern Tibet. J Met Geol, doi:10.1111/jmg.12050


      6. Smye et al. 2010. Garnet-chloritoid-kyanite assemblages: eclogite facies indicators of
      subduction constraints in orogenic belts. J Met Geol, 28, 753-768
      Mixed volatile equilibria (4 & 5)
      1. Spear 1993. ‘Metamorphic phase equilibria and pressure-temperature-time paths'.
      Chapter 12.
      2. Powell 1979. ‘Equilibrium thermodynamics in petrology'. Chapter 8.
      3. Yardley, B. 1989. ‘An introduction to metamorphic petrology'. Chapter 5.
      4. Baker J and Matthews A (1994) Textural and isotopic development of marble
      assemblages during the Barrovian-style M2 metamorphic event, Naxos, Greece. Contrib.
      Mineral. Petrol., 116, 130-144.
      5. Rice J.M. 1977 Progressive metamorphism of impure dolomitic limestone in the
      Marysville Aureole, Montana. American Journal of Science, 277, 1-24. (natural example of
      contact metamorphosed siliceous dolomites)
      6. Greenwood, H.J. 1975 Buffering of pore fluids by metamorphic reactions. American
      Journal of Science, 275, 573-594. (simple no-infiltration calculations. note that these do not
      allow for fixed porosity)
      7. Philpotts and Ague. ‘Principles of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology'. Chapter 20.
      Thermobarometry (6)


      1. Spear 1993. ‘Metamorphic phase equilibria and pressure-temperature-time paths'.
      Chapter 15.
      2. Powell, R. & Holland, T.J.B. 1994. Optimal geothermometry and geobarometry.
      American Mineralogist, 79, 120-133
      3. Philpotts and Ague. ‘Principles of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology'. Chapter 19.


  • 4. Vernon and Clarke. ‘Principles of Metamorphic Petrology. Chapter 2'.


Lecture Fifteen

T J B Holland


Lecture Sixteen

T J B Holland

Part II - Core 3 Petrology

Reading List - Option 3 (2016)


Reading list for Tim Holland - Metamorphic topics, 6 Lectures

General reading

  • A Philpotts and J Ague. ‘Principles of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology’.
  • R Vernon and G Clarke. ‘Principles of Metamorphic Petrology’.

Schreinemakers/projections (1 & 2)

  • Nordstrom & Munoz. 1985. ‘Geochemical thermodynamics’. Chapter 4. (good intro)
  • Yardley, B. 1989. ‘An introduction to metamorphic petrology’. Appendix. (basic intro)
  • Spear 1993. ‘Metamorphic phase equilibria and pressure-temperature-time paths’. Chapters 5,8.
  • Philpotts and Ague. ‘Principles of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology’. Chapter 8.

Pelites (1 & 2)

Mixed volatile equilibria (3)

Granulite facies (4 & 5)

Also a useful guide on the web from Dave Waters:

Oxidation/reduction and fluids (6)

Reading list for Marian Holness - Lectures 7- 11 Igneous Petrography

This is an introductory course on microstructures and how we can use them to interpret rock history, with particular application to igneous rocks. It is a vast subject and we can only touch on a few essential things. These general source books are a good place to look things up.

 General sources 

  • Granitic Pegmatites (2012) Elements, vol. 8, number 4. There are many interesting articles touching on issues of crystal growth.
  • Higgins, M.D. (2006) Quantitative textural measurements in igneous and metamorphic petrology. CUP. A good source if you are thinking of doing microstructural work in your Part III project
  • Kretz, R. (1994) Metamorphic Crystallisation. Wiley.
  • Tiller, W.A. (1977) On the cross-pollenation of crystallisation ideas between metallurgy and geology. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 2, 125-151.
  • Vernon, R.H. (2004) A practical guide to rock microstructure. CUP. £34.99. Highly recommended, especially if you are planning to do a hard-rock PhD. This book is pretty much the first place to look if you need to understand any particular microstructure.

Crystal nucleation and growth

Topics covered in this introduction include nucleation (homogenous and heterogeneous, including the effects of pore size in nucleation inhibition) and crystal growth mechanisms. The balance between nucleation and growth determines the overall grain size and grain size distribution in the rock.

Nucleation and crystal growth

 Crystal size distributions

 Pattern formation during grain growth (relevant to the first practical)

Crystal shape

In this lecture we cover the controls on crystal shape, starting with interface-controlled growth and moving onto diffusion-limited growth. The practical following the lecture gives you the opportunity to look at rocks with dendritic and spherulitic microstructures. There is also a suite of samples demonstrating the progressive metamorphism of chert nodules in dolomite, with the onset of pattern formation at olivine-grade.

The basics of diffusion-limited growth

Porter, D.A. & Easterling, K.E. (1981) Phase transformations in metals and alloys. Chapter 4 (B 30.107 or on Moodle)


 Eutectics and pegmatites

 Textural equilibrium

Once reaction is over, and if the rock is not being deformed rapidly, microstructures evolve towards a minimum energy state, in which grain shape and the topology of minor phases (such as fluid) are controlled by interfacial energies. If we know something about the relative magnitudes of interfacial energies we can make predictions about what these microstructures look like and therefore predict how fluids move through the Earth.

The practical provides the opportunity to examine microstructures from well-equilibrated environments and to develop a feel for the length- and time-scales over which interfacial energies affect microstructure.

 Theory of textural equilibrium

Applications to natural systems

  • Cheadle, M.J., Elliott, M.T. and McKenzie, D. (2004) Percolation threshold and permeability of crystallising igneous rocks: the importance of textural equilibrium. Geology, 32, 757-760.
  • Hunter, R.H. (1987) Textural equilibrium in layered igneous rocks. In: (ed. Parsons, I.) Origins of igneous layering. Dordrecht: D. Reidel. pp. 473–503.
  • Laporte, D., Rapaille, C. & Provost, A. (1997) Wetting angles, equilibrium melt geometry, and the permeability threshold of partially molten crustal protoliths. In: Granite: From segregation of melt to emplacement fabrics. (eds. Bouchez, J.-L., Hutton, D.H. & Stephens, W.E.) pp. 31-54. Kluwer Acad., Norwell, Mass.
  • Laporte, D. & Watson, E.B. (1995) Experimental and theoretical constraints on melt distribution in crustal sources: the effect of crystalline anisotropy on melt interconnectivity. Chemical Geology, 124, 161-184.
  • Minarik, W.G. & Watson, E.B. (1995) Interconnectivity of carbonate melt at low melt fraction. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 133, 423-437. 


Microstructural evolution in cumulates

This lecture shows how we can apply our understanding of nucleation and crystal growth to decoding the solidification history of plutonic rocks. We will focus primarily on large (>1000m) bodies of mafic magma, in which gravitationally-driven separation of solids from residual liquid drives fractionation. Key to understanding the processes occurring during solidification is observation of incompletely solidified material such as drillcore through lava lakes and glassy crystalline nodules.

 Physical processes in cumulates


Microstructures in cumulates and their interpretation


Layered Intrusions: Rum and Skaergaard

 This lecture provides an introduction to layered intrusions, using two end-members. The classic Skaergaard intrusion is the one that started it all (and incidentally resulted in a hiatus in our developing understanding of magma plumbing systems as it is so iconic that no-one could imagine anything looking or behaving different to Skaergaard), forming from closed-system fractionation. The Rum magma chamber was likely to have been more typical of what we imagine shallow-level magma storage immediately feeding the overlying volcano.

 The practical session will provide the opportunity to examine the classic fractionation sequence developed in the Skaergaard.



Part II - Core 4 Climate

This is the previosu reading list & will be updated as soon as possible

Part II Reading List - Core 4: Climate

Reading List for C4 by Subject - Lectures 1-6 by David Hodell

Deep Sea Sediments

General references:

Lisitzin, A. P. (1996), Oceanic Sedimentation: Lithology and Geochemistry, 400 pp., AGU, Washington, D. C., there is no copy of this in the library, available on line only doi:10.1029/SP044.

Kennett, J.P. (1982). Marine Geology, Chapters 13-16, pp. 396-573, Prentice Hall - in the short loan collection in the library office

Specific papers:

Francois, R., M. Frank, M. M. Rutgers van der Loeff, and M. P. Bacon (2004), 230Th normalization: An essential tool for interpreting sedimentary fluxes during the late Quaternary, Paleoceanography, 19, PA1018, doi:10.1029/2003PA000939.

Henderson, G.M., and Anderson, R.F., The U-series Toolbox for Paleoceanography (2003), Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry January 52 ( 1), 493-531.

Kristensen, E., Penha-Lopes, G., Delefosse, M., Valdemarsen, T., Quintana, C.O., and Banta, G.T., 2012. What is bioturbation? The need for a precise definition for fauna in aquatic sciences Inter-Research - Marine Ecology Progress Series v446 p285-302 

McCave, I.N., (2002), A poisoned chalice? Science 298, 1186-1187.

Teal, L.R., Bulling, M.T., Parker, E.R. and Solan, M., (2008), Global patterns of bioturbation intensity and mixed depth of marine soft sediments. Aquatic Biology, 2, 207–218.


Methods of temperature and ice volume reconstruction in marine sediments


Oritz, J. and Mix, A. (1997). Comparison of Imbrie-Kipp transfer function and modern analog temperature estimates using sediment trap and core top foraminiferal faunas. Paleoceanography 12(2): 175-190.

Oxygen isotopes

Rohling, E.J. (2006) Oxygen isotope composition of seawater. In, Elias, S.A. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science (Vol. 3)., Elsevier, 1748-1756.


Lea, D.W. (2003) Elemental and Isotopic Proxies of Marine Temperatures, (this link is to the 2014 edition) pp. 365-390. In The Oceans and Marine Geochemistry (ed. H. Elderfield, ed.) Vol. 6 Treatise on Geochemistry (eds H.D. Holland and K.K. Tuerekian), Elsevier-Pergamon, Oxford.

Rosenthal, Y., B.K. Linsley, Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca Paleothermometery from Calcareous Marine Fossils, chapter in the Encyclopedia of Quaternary Sciences, Elsevier Ltd., 2006.

Clumped isotopes

Eiler, J.M., 2011. Paleoclimate reconstruction using carbonate clumped isotope thermometry. Quaternary Science Reviews, 30: 3575–3588.


Herbert, T.D., 2003. Alkenone paleotemperature determinations. In: Treatise on Geochemistry, Vol. 6 (December 2003) , p. 391-432.


Schouten, S., Hopmans, E.C., Schefus, E., and Sinninghe Damste, 2002, Distributional variation in marine crenarchaeotal membrane lipids: a new tool for reconstructing ancient sea water temperatures?: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 204: 265-274.


Milankovitch Theory of the Ice Ages

General reading:
Imbrie, J. and Imbrie, K.P., 1979. Ice Ages: Solving the Mystery. Harvard University Press, ISBN: 0-674-44075-7

Review paper:
Berger, A., Milankovitch theory and climate, Reviews in Geophysics, 26, 624-657, 1988.

Classic papers:
Hays, J.D., Imbrie, J., and Shackleton, N.J., 1976. Variations in the Earth's Orbit: Pacemaker of the Ice Ages, Science, 194,  1121-1132.
Imbrie, J., and J. Z. Imbrie, 1980. Modeling the climatic response to orbital variations, Science, 207, 943–953.
Paillard, D. (2001), Glacial cycles: Toward a new paradigm, Rev. Geophys., 39, 325 –346.

For an alternative view:
Wunsch, C., 2004, Quantitative estimate of the Milankovitch-forced contribution to observed Quaternary climate change Quaternary Science Reviews 23, 1001–1012.

Middle Pleistocene Transition

Clark, P. U., D. Archer, D. Pollard, J. D. Blum, J. A. Rial, V. Brovkin, A. C Mix, N. G. Pisias, and M. Roy (2006), The middle Pleistocene transition: characteristics, mechanisms, and implications for long-term changes in atmospheric CO2, Quat. Sci. Rev, 25, 3150-3184.
Elderfield, H., Ferretti, P., Greaves, M., Crowhurst, S., McCave, I.N., Hodell, D.A., and Piotrowski, A.M., 2012. Evolution of ocean temperature and ice volume through the Mid-Pleistocene Climate Transition. Science 337, 704-709.
Huybers, 2006, Early Pleistocene glacial cycles and the integrated summer insolation forcing, Science, 313,  pp. 508-511.
Raymo, M.E. and K.H. Nisancioglu, 2003, The 41 Kyr world: Milankovitch’s other unsolved mystery, Paleoceanography, v. 18, 10.1029/2002PA000791.
Raymo, M. E. and P. Huybers, 2008, Unlocking the mysteries of the Ice Ages, Nature, v. 451, p. 284-285.
Raymo, M. E., L. Lisiecki, and K. Nisancioglu, 2006, Plio-Pleistocene ice volume, Antarctic climate, and the global ?18O record, Science, v. 313, p. 492, doi: 10.1126/science.1123296.


Bailey, R.J., 2009. Cyclostratigraphic reasoning and orbital time calibration Terra Nova, 21, 340–351.

Hilgen, F.J., 1991. Astronomical calibration of Gauss to Matuyama sapropels in the Mediterranean and implication for the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 104: 226-244.

Krijgsman, W., Hilgen, F.J., Raffi, I., Sierro, F.J., Wilsonk, D.S., 1999. Chronology, causes and progression of the Messinian salinity crisis. Nature  400: 625-655.

Tuenter, E., Weber, S.L., Hilgen, F.J., Lourens, L.J., 2003. The response of the African summer monsoon to remote and local forcing due to precession and obliquity Global and Planetary Change 36: 219–235.

Weedon, G.P., 2003. Chapter 1 in Time-series analysis and cyclostratigraphy: examining stratigraphic records of environmental cycles, Cambridge University Press, 259 pp.


Lecture 7. (Thu 2nd Feb) Deep Ocean Circulation and Climate (Piotrowski)
What role does deep ocean circulation play in affecting global and regional climate? We will examine the physics of ocean circulation and then review the major studies which suggested that the ocean plays an important role in the climate system.

Lecture 8. (Mon 6th Feb) Nutrient and Water Mass Chemistry Proxies (d13C, Cd/Ca, Nd) (Piotrowski)

How can we reconstruct the past changes in ocean overturning and carbon storage in the deep ocean? We will learn about the geochemical tools which are used to reconstruct past changes in the source and pathway of deep water masses.

Lecture 9. (Wed 8th Feb) Dynamic Circulation Proxies (Pa/Th and 14C and sortable silt) (Piotrowski)
We will survey about the geochemical and sedimentological techniques which are used for reconstructing the overturning rate and flow speeds of deep water masses.

Lecture 10. (Thu 9th Feb) Glacial-Interglacial and Millennial-scale Changes in Ocean Circulation
And overview of recently published records of ocean circulation changes during the most recent glacial-interglacial cycle, as well as during more rapid climate changes including D-O cycles and Heinrich Events. How do these relate these to the outputs of global climate models?

Lecture 11. (Mon 13th Feb) Equatorial Oceanic Gateways and Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (Piotrowski)


Lecture  by Eric Wolff

Lecture 13: Ice sheets and ice cores

Lecture 14: Orbital and millennial events in ice cores

"Lecture 15" (Guest seminar afternoon)

Lecture 16: The cryosphere and ice dynamics

Lecture 23: Lessons from the past and options for the future



1A Earth Sciences - Reading List & Resources

This reading list is intended to include the major texts that are in press that cover this course. Most of these books should be available in your college libraries. There may be other (older) texts available that cover the same material either in college libraries, or recommended by lecturers through the year. Recent texts are indicated thus ‘N’. Texts indicated with asterisks will be of use in more than one section of the course, and those marked ‘***’ are particularly recommended. Where the text is available as an e-book the link has been included Please contact the library if you have any queries about this page

1A collections screen shotResource: 1A Reference Series: Rocks, Minerals & Fossils 


This website houses photographs and descriptions of the specimens found in the 1A (first year) Reference Series at the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge. This series is a collection of rocks, minerals and fossils used to aid the first year Geology students in their practical revision. It is not an exhaustive collection, but includes the range of specimens with which the first year students should become familiar. You may also want to use The Virtual Microscope web site in conjunction with the Reference series - or Vice Versa


Reading List

Introductory texts

  • *** Davidson, JP. Reed, WE, & Davis, PM, 1997. Exploring Earth: an introduction to physical geology. Prentice-Hall. 2nd ed 2002
  • ***N Langmuir, C.H., & Broecker, W.S., 2012. How to Build a Habitable Planet. Princetown University Press. ebook
  • **N Kearey P., Klepais, K.A. & Vine F.J., 2009, Global Tectonics 3rd edition. Blackwell. ebook
  • **N Press, F. 2004, Understanding Earth. Freeman
  • * Duff, D (ed), 1994. Holmes’ principles of physical geology, Chapman and Hall (do not get older editions).
  • Lunine, JI, 2013. Earth: evolution of a habitable world 2nd edition, Cambridge University Press. Ebook
  • Skinner, B.J., Porter, S.C., Park, J. & Freeman, T. 2006, The Dynamic Earth. Wiley.

What's the Earth made of? Earth & other planets

  • ***N Cornelis Klein and Tony Philpotts, 2013, Earth Materials: Introduction to Mineralogy and Petrology, Cambridge University Press.
  • ***N Deer, W.A., Howie, R.A. and Zussman, J, 2013. “An Introduction to the rock forming minerals”. Mineralogical Society.
  • *** MacKenzie, W.S. and Guildford, C. “Atlas of Rock-Forming Minerals in Thin Section.” (Longman)
  • * Brown, GC et al, 1992. Understanding the Earth, 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press.
  • * Duff, D (ed), 1994. Holmes’ principles of physical geology, Chapman and Hall (do not get older editions).
  • * Fowler, CMR, 2004. The solid Earth. 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press. Contains much of the geophysics that a petrologist should know.
  • Putnis, Andrew, 1992, “Introduction to Mineral Sciences.” (Cambridge University Press)
  • Hans-Rudolf Wenk and Andrei Bulakh, 2004, “Minerals. Their constitution and origin.” (Cambridge University Press) ebook
  • Ron H. Vernon, 2004, “A practical guide to rock microstructure.” (Cambridge University Press) ebook
  • Battey, MH & Pring, A, 1997, Mineralogy for Students (3rd edition). Longman
  • Cox, KG, Price, NB & Harte, B 1988, An introduction to the practical study of crystals, minerals and rocks. McGraw-Hill.
  • MacKenzie, WS & Adams, AE, 1994, A colour atlas of rocks and minerals in thin section, Manson.
  • Scientific American “The Dynamic Earth” Sept. 1983. Chapters on “The Mantle”, “The Core”. - Good introduction to units 15-24.
  • N Schubert, G., Turcotte, D.L. and Olson P., 2001. “Mantle convection in the Earth and planets”. (Cambridge University Press). Ebook



  • ***N Nichols, G. 2009. Sedimentology and stratigraphy, 2nd edition. Wiley-Blackwell. 419 pp. ISBN 978-1-4051-3592-4. Earth Sciences Library B.05.776.1 ebook
  • Stow, D.A.V. 2005. Sedimentary rocks in the field : a colour guide. Manson, 320 pp. ISBN 1-87454-569-3. Earth Sciences Library B.43.59M
  • N Tucker, M.E. 2011. Sedimentary rocks in the field. 4th edition, Wiley, 288 pp. ISBN 0-47085-123-6 Earth Sciences Library B.03.380.6 (3rd edn) ebook 2001
  • Collinson, J.D., Mountney, N. & Thompson, D.B. 2006. Sedimentary structures. 3rd Edition. Terra. 292 pp. ISBN 1-90354-419-X. Earth Sciences Library B.05.438 (2nd edn).
  • Allen, PA, 1997, Earth surface processes. Blackwells. 416 pp. ISBN 0-632-03507-2. Earth Sciences Library B.05.746 ebook



  • *** Cronin, T.M., 2010. Paleoclimates: Understanding Climate Change Past and Present. Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0-231-14494-0
  • Imbrie, J. and Imbrie, K.P., 1979. Ice Ages: Solving the Mystery. Harvard University Press, ISBN: 0-674-44075-7, 224 pp.
  • IPCC AR4 (2007). Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007. Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Available on line at:
  • Peixoto, J. and Oort, A.H., 1992. Physics of Climate, Chapter 6, AIP, ISBN 0-88318-711-6, 520pp.
  • Ruddiman, W.F., 2001. Earth's climate: past and future. W.H. Freeman and company, ISBN 0-7167-3741-8 (pbk.), 465 pp.+ xxi
  • Trenberth, K., Fasullo, J., Kiehl, J. (2009). Earth’s global energy budget. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. March 2009, 311-323. ejournal



  • Conway-Morris, S. (2003) Life’s solution: inevitable humans in a lonely universe. Cambridge. Ebook
  • Clarkson, E.N.K., 1993. “Invertebrate Palaeontology and Evolution” (4th edition). Blackwells. Ebook
  • Raup, D.M. & Stanley, S.M., 1978. “Principles of Paleontology” (2nd edition). Freeman.
  • Kemp, T.S. 1999. “Fossils and Evolution”. Oxford. 
  • Benton, M. & Harper, D. (1997) Basic palaeontology. Addison Wesley Longman. 
  • Knoll, A.H. (2004). Life on a young planet: The first three billion years of evolution on Earth. Princeton.
  • N Foote, M. & Miller, A. 2007. Principles of Paleontology. Freeman. £40.99. ISBN: 071670613X [NB. This is the successor to D.M. Raup & S.M. Stanley’s Principles of Paleontology.]
  • N Thomson, K. 2005. Fossils: A very short introduction. Oxford University Press. £6.99. ISBN: 9780192805041 Miller. ebook







  • Woodcock, N.H. & Strachan, R.A. (2012) Geological history of Britain and Ireland. (Second edition) Wiley-Blackwell (or first edition, 2000) Ebook
  • Hunter, A. & Easterbrook, G. (2004) The Geological History of the British Isles. Open University.

Link to items on the list held by the Betty & Gordon Moore Library - you will need to be logged in to Raven to access this


1B Geological Sciences - Reading Lists

This list summarises the key reference texts [that are mostly in print] that you may wish to use throughout your second year of geology. There may be other books and papers that are suggested for particular parts of the course that are not featured on this list. You should be able to find many of these books in your college libraries, or else in the Departmental library. You may (eventually) wish to consider purchasing those marked **.


  • Fossen, H. 2010, Structural geology, Cambridge University Press, 480pp. Ebook
  • McClay, K. R. 2002. The mapping of geological structures. (2nd edition) Wiley, 224 pp.
  • Maltman, A. 1998. Geological maps: an introduction. (2nd Edition) Wiley 260 pp.
  • Park, R. G. 1997. Foundations of structural geology. (3rd edition) Chapman & Hall, 214 pp, reprinted 2005 by Routledge.



  • Allen, P.A. 1997, Earth Surface Processes. Blackwell, Oxford, 404p. ISBN 0-632-03507-2. Ebook
  • Cox A. & R.B. Hart. 1986. Plate Tectonics: How it works. Blackwell Scientific Publications. Ebook
  • ** C. Mary Fowler (2004). The Solid Earth, 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press. (An outstanding book covering a wide range of global geophysics. Will still be useful at Part II.)



  • W.S. Broecker and T.H. Peng, Tracers in the sea; Eldigio Press, 1982, 690pp. Now out of print, but in many college libraries.
  • G. Faure, Principles of Isotope geology, 2nd edition, Wiley, 1986, 589pp. The standard text for an introduction to isotope systematics.
  • S.M. Libes, An introduction to marine biogeochemistry; Wiley, 1992, 734pp. 2Nd ed 2009 Ebook Covers some of the topics at a less advanced level.
  • Open University, Ocean chemistry and deep-sea sediments, Pergamon Press, 1989 and 1991 (also excellent coverage of basics)



  • ** Bridge, J. and Demicco, R., 2008. Earth Surface Processes, Landforms and Sediment Deposits. Cambridge University Press. Leading text book on the subject.
  • ** Nichols, G. 1999. Sedimentology and stratigraphy. Blackwell Science, 355 pp. Excellent coverage for our courses on both Sedimentology and sedimentary basins. Ebook
  • Leeder, M.R. 1999 Sedimentology and sedimentary basins: from turbulence to tectonics. Blackwell Science. Ebook.
  • Good coverage of sediment transport by fluids and good on basins and clastics as well.
  • Reading, H.G. (ed). 1996. Sedimentary environments: processes, facies and stratigraphy. 3rd edition. Blackwell. Ebook Encyclopaedic, reference.
  • Scoffin, T.P. 1987. An introduction to carbonate sediments and rocks. Blackie.
  • Stow, D.A.V. 2005. Sedimentary rocks in the field: A colour guide. Manson Publishing.
  • Tucker, M.E. 2001. An introduction to sedimentary petrology. 3rd edition. Blackwell. Ebook 



  • Briggs, D. E. G., and Crowther, P. R. 1990. Palaeobiology, a synthesis. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford. (Short essays on a wide range of palaeobiological topics)
  • Briggs, D.E.G., and Crowther, P.R. 2001. Palaeobiology II, A synthesis. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford. Ebook (Short essays on a wide range of palaeobiological topics)
  • ** Clarkson, E. N. 1998. Invertebrate palaeontology and evolution, 4th ed. Blackwell. Ebook  (A straightforward survey of the important fossil-forming invertebrates)
  • Futuyma, D. J. 2005 Evolution. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland (Massachusetts). 603 pp. A comprehensive and up to date text covering all aspects of evolutionary biology.
  • Lipps, J. H. (ed.) 1993. Fossil prokaryotes and protists. Blackwell Scientific, Boston. (Useful overview of the important fossil-forming protists)
  • Skelton, P. (ed.) 1993. Evolution, a biological and palaeontological approach. Addison-Wesley. Exhaustive coverage of evolutionary principles with a focus on the unique contribution of palaeontological data.



  • Benton, M.J. 2005. Vertebrate Palaeontology 3rd Edn. Blackwell. Ebook
  • Kemp, T.S. 2005. The origin and evolution of mammals. Oxford University Press. Ebook
  • Pough, F.H., Janis, C.M. & Heiser, JB., 2012. Vertebrate life. Pearson, 9th Edition. (Good stuff if you want to learn a little more about the nuts, bolts and biology of these critters - mix of living and fossil forms helps as well.)



  • Allen PA, Allen JR 2013, Basin Analysis: Principles and Application to Petroleum Play Assessment, Chichester, Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Allen P.A., Allen John R. 2005, Basin analysis: Principles and Applications, Oxford Blackwell Pub, ISBN:9780632052073. 2Nd ed ebook. Good on general principles; more detail than you need, but with a useful chapter on petroleum near the end.
  • Busby, C.J. & Ingersoll, R.V. (eds) 1995 Tectonics of sedimentary basins. Blackwell Science, Oxford. (Takes a geological rather than mechanical view of basins. Useful chapters on basins in each main tectonic setting.)
  • Leeder, M. 1999. Sedimentology and sedimentary basins: from turbulence to tectonics. Blackwell Science, Oxford. Ebook (Mostly on sedimentology, but has a concise reliable treatment of basins at the end.)

Option 5 - 2016



Reading List - Option 5 (2016)

Please note that if references are marked with an asterisk (*) , they have been highlighted by your lecturers as being particularly useful to you.

David Norman Lectures

Op 5. Evolutionary Palaeobiology (vertebrates)


Useful textbooks: Tetrapods generally:

Dinosaurs specifically:

Thought-provoking references on the biology/physiology of transition: 


Useful textbooks:

  • Brusatte S (2012). Dinosaur paleobiology. Wiley Blackwell
  • Fastovsky & Weishampel (2005). The evolution and extinction of the dinosaurs. Cambridge University Press.
  • Curry-Rogers K & Wilson J (2005). The Sauropods: evolution and paleobiology. California University Press
  • Norman D (2005). Dinosaurs – a very short introduction. Oxford University Press

Specific references: 

The soft tissues and biochemistry of dinosaurs investigated and endlessly argued over. This list includes stuff you never actually read from the 1A course! Now's the chance to catch up?



Useful textbooks: 

  • Norman D (2005) Dinosaurs a very short introduction. Oxford University Press.
  • Gauthier, J & LF Gall (2001). New perspectives on the origin and early evolution of birds. Proceedings of the international symposium in honour of John H Ostrom. Peabody Museum, Yale University.

Some specific references:


  • Norman D & Weishampel D (1985). Ornithopod feeding mechanisms: their bearing on the evolution of herbivory. Am. Naturalist 126: 151
  • Farlow J (1987). Speculations about the diet and digestive physiology of herbivorous dinosaurs. Paleobiology 13: 60-72.
  • Barrett P & Willis K (2001). Did dinosaurs invent flowers? Dinosaur-angiosperm co-evolution revisited. Biological Reviews 76: 411-447.
  • Piperno, DR & H-D Sues (2005). Dinosaurs dined on grass. Science 310: 1126-1128.
  • Holliday & Witmer (2008). Cranial kinesis in dinosaurs: intracranial joints, protractor muscles and their significance for cranial evolution and function in diapsids. J. Vertebr. Paleo. 28: 1073-1088.
  • Williams V, Barrett P, Purnell, M (2009). Quantitative analysis of dental microwear in hadrosaurid dinosaurs – jaw mechanics and feeding. Proc Natl Acad Sci 106: 11194-11199.
  • Bell, Snively & Shychoski (2009). A comparison of jaw mechanics in hadrosaurid and ceratopid dinosaurs using FEA. The Anatomical Record 292: 1338-1351.
  • Erickson et al. (2012). Complex dental structure and wear biomechanics in hadrosaurid dinosaurs. Science 338: 98-101.
  • Barrett P (2014). Paleobiology of herbivorous dinosaurs. Ann. Rev. Earth Planet Sci 42: 207-230.
  • Mallon & Anderson (2014). The functional and palaeoecological implications of tooth morphology and wear for megaherbivorous dinosaurs ... PlosONE 9 (6) e98605.

Respiration/aerobic capacity 

Lecture 8. Ultimate dinosaurs - the birds

Useful textbooks: 

  • Gauthier, J & LF Gall (2001). New perspectives on the origin and early evolution of birds. Proceedings of the international symposium in honour of John H Ostrom. Peabody Museum, Yale University. 

  • Fastovsky D & Weishampel, D (2005). The evolution and extinction of the dinosaurs. Cambridge University Press 

  • Brusatte S (2012) Dinosaur paleobiology. Wiley-Blackwell + a little intellectual excursion into evolutionary theorizing: 'correlated progression' - an approach concerning the question of how to turn a large reptile into a small mammal (or a bird) ... 

  • Kemp T (2005). The origin and evolution of mammals. Oxford Univ Press.

Some specific references (bird origins):



Option 3 - 2016

Reading List - Option 3 (2016)

Please note that if references are marked with an asterisk (*) , they have been highlighted by your lecturers as being particularly useful to you.

Part II/III Options Course O3
Igneous and Metamorphic Processes - John Maclennan

Lectures 6-11: Icelandic Magmatism

Lecture 6: The geology, petrology and geophysics of Iceland
The active rift zones and volcanic systems. Flank zones. Ridge Jumps. Accretion of the upper crust. Crustal thickness variations and mantle seismic tomography

Practical 6: Estimates of the mantle potential temperature under Iceland
Olivine-liquid equilibria. REE geochemistry and crustal thickness. Seismic velocity.

Lecture 7: Melt generation at mid-ocean ridges
Upwelling at mid-ocean ridges. Models of melting and prediction of basalt geochemistry circa 1992. Comparison with observations. Improving the models.

Practical 7: Volcanism and glaciation in Iceland. Relationship between eruption rates and glaciation. Magma chamber processes. Mantle melting.

Lecture 8: Mantle heterogeneity under Iceland
Iceland in the North Atlantic. Variation within Iceland. Variation within single volcanic systems. Nature of recycled material in the source. Components galore. Consequences of melting a heterogeneous source.

Practical 8: Constraints on mantle upwelling rates REE composition of basalts and crustal thickness. U-series disequilibrium.

Lecture 9: Melt transport under ridges
Constraints on melt transport rates. Evidence for channelisation – dunite formation. How do channels form? How are melts focussed to the ridge axis?

Practical 9: Flow and melting of heterogeneous mantle under the North Atlantic - Understanding geochemical asymmetry around Iceland. Linking geochemical variations on the Reykjanes Ridge to V-Shaped Ridge record of mantle temperature variations. Plume fluxes.

Lecture 10: The ridge filter: Mixing and crystallisation in magma chambers
Location of magma chambers. Fractional crystallisation. Mixing.

Practical 10: Crystallisation in the Icelandic crust

Barometric methods: Cpx-liquid equilibria, Olivine-plagioclase-augite-liquid co-saturation. Depth range of crystallisation, products of crystallisation. Petrography of Icelandic basalts and crustal xenoliths.

Lecture 11: Magmatic processes in the lead-up to large eruptions.
Laki and other large fissure eruptions. Rhyolites and hydrothermal activity. Crustal assimilation. The lateral flow debate.

Practical 11: The petrologic method
The Laki eruption.

Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems

Core 4 2016

Reading List for C4 (Hodell) by Subject

Deep Sea Sediments

General references:

Specific papers:

Methods of temperature and ice volume reconstruction in marine sediments


Oxygen isotopes


  • Lea, D.W. (2003) Elemental and Isotopic Proxies of Marine Temperatures, pp. 365-390. In The Oceans and Marine Geochemistry (ed. H. Elderfield, ed.) Vol. 6 Treatise on Geochemistry (eds H.D. Holland and K.K. Tuerekian), Elsevier-Pergamon, Oxford.
  • Rosenthal, Y., B.K. Linsley, Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca Paleothermometery from Calcareous Marine Fossils, chapter in the Encyclopedia of Quaternary Sciences, Elsevier Ltd., 2006.

Clumped isotopes



Milankovitch Theory of the Ice Ages

General reading:

  • Imbrie, J. and Imbrie, K.P., 1979. Ice Ages: Solving the Mystery. Harvard University Press, ISBN: 0-674-44075-7

Review paper:

Classic papers:

For an alternative view:

Middle Pleistocene Transition



Petrology B

Reading list for Part III Petrology B lectures - created 2017

Petrology B - Sally Gibson

* = highly recommended as the most appropriate available book for PETB


Available from the library office

Davies, G.F.D. 2011. Mantle convection for geologists. Cambridge University Press
Dickin, A.P. Radiogenic Isotope Geochemistry. Cambridge University Press
*Gill, R. 2010. Igneous rocks & processes. Wiley-Blackwell
*Treatise on Geochemistry 2 (2014): The mantle & core (Elsevier) - dopn't have thi
*Rollinson , H., 1993. Using geochemical data. Pearson
MacKenzie, Donaldson & Guilford, Atlas of igneous rocks and their textures.
Nixon, P.H., 1987. Mantle Xenoliths
Available from the library office.
Shaw, D.M., 2007. Trace elements in magmas: A theoretical treatment. Cambridge University Press
White, W.M., 2013. Geochemistry. Wiley
*Deer Howie & Zussman,  An introduction to the rock forming minerals

Lecture 1
*Carlson,  R.W.,  Pearson,  D.G.  & James,  D.E.,  2005.  Physical  and  chemical  characteristics  of continental mantle.
Reviews of Geophysics, 43, 1, doi:10.1029/2004RG000156
Dawson, J.B. & Smith, J.V., 1975. Occurrence of diamond in a mica-garnet lherzolite xenolith from kimberlite. Nature 254, 580-581.
Gibson, S.A., Malarkey, J. & Day, J.A., 2008. Melt depletion and enrichment beneath the western Kaapvaal craton: Evidence from Finsch peridotite xenoliths. J. Petrology, 49, 10 doi:10.1093/petology/egn048
*Mather, K.A., Pearson, D.G., McKenzie, D., Kjarsgaard, B. A. & Priestley K. (2011), Constraints on the depth and thermal history of cratonic lithosphere from peridotite xenoliths, xenocrysts and seismology, Lithos, 125(1–2), 729 – 742,  doi:10.1016/j.lithos.2011.04.003

Lecture 2


Lecture 3


Core 5

Introduction to Rock and Paleomagnetism



Lectures 13-18 James Bryson

Essential text books:

Essentials of Paleomagnetism - Lisa Tauxe (in the library and also all available on-line,
Magnetism in Condensed Matter - Stephen Blundell (in the library)

Papers for later lectures and research seminar:

Geophysics A 2017

Geophys A (Part IIIs): Continetal Tectonics

Dr Alex Copley

Lecture 1:

Lecture 2:

Lecture 3:
  • Jackson et al, 1982, Seismicity, normal faulting, and the geomorphological development of the Gulf of Corinth (Greece): the Corinth earthquakes of February and March 1981, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 57, p. 377-397. 
  • Jackson, 1987, Active normal faulting and crustal extension, Geological Society Special Publication No. 28, p. 3-17. 
  • Jackson and White, 1988, Normal faulting in the upper continental crust: observations from regions of active extension, Journal of Structural Geology, 11, p. 15-36. 
  • Proffett 1977, Cenozoic geology of the Yerington district, Nevada, and implications for the nature and origin of Basin and Range faulting, Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 88, p. 247-266. 
  • Foster and Nimmo, 1996, Comparisons between the rift systems of East Africa, Earth, and Beta Regio, Venus, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 143, p. 183-195. 
  • Copley and Woodcock, 2016, Estimates of fault strength from the Variscan foreland of the northern UK, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 451, p. 108-113. 
  • Jackson and Blenkinsop, 1997, the Bilila-Mtakataka fault in Malawi: and active, 100-km long, normal fault segment in thick seismogenic crust, Tectonics, 16, p. 137-150. 
  • Goldsworthy and Jackson, 2001, Migration of activity within normal fault systems: examples from the Quaternary of mainland Greece, Journal of Structural Geology, 23, p. 489-506. 

Lecture 4:

Nissen et al., 2011, New views on earthquake faulting in the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt of Iran, Geophysical Journal International, 186, p. 928-944.

Talebian & Jackson, 2003, A reappraisal of earthquake focal mechanisms and active shortening in the Zagros Mountains of Iran, Geophysical Journal International, 156, p. 506-526.

Copley & Jackson, 2006 Active Tectonics of the Turkish-Iranian Plateau, Tectonics, 25, doi:10.1029/2005TC001906.

Molnar & Gipson, 1994, Very long baseline interferometry and active rotations of crustal blocks in the Western Transverse Ranges, California, Bulletin of the Gological Society of America, 106, p. 594-606.

Bayasgalan et al., 1999, Field examples of strike-slip fault terminations in Mongolia and their tectonic significance, Tectonics, 18, p. 394-411.

Copley, 2014, Postseismic afterslip 30 years after the 1978 Tabas-e-Golshan (Iran) earthquake: observations and implications for the geological evolution of thrust belts, Geophysical Journal International, doi: 10.1093/gji/ggu023.

Lecture 5:

Mckenzie, 1972, Active Tectonics of the Mediterranean Region, Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 30, p. 109-185.

England and Jackson, Active deformation of the continents, Ann. Revs. Earth. Planet. Sci., 17, 197-226, 1989.

Meade, Present-day kinematics of the India-Asia collision zone, Geology, 35, 81-84, 2007.

England and Molnar, Active deformation of Asia: from kinematics to dynamics, Science, 278, 647-650, 1997.

Bendick et al, Geodetic evidence for a low slip rate in the Altyn Tagh fault system, Nature, 404, 69-72, 2001

Lecture 6:

Priestley & McKenzie, 2006, The thermal structure of the lithosphere from shear wave velocities, Earth and Planetry Science Letters, 244, p. 285-301.

McKenzie & Priestley, 2008, The influence of lithospheric thickness variations on continental evolution, Lithos, 102, p. 1-11.

Copley et al., 2014, Active faulting in apparently stable peninsular India: rift inversion and a Holocene-age great earthquake on the Tapti Fault, Journal of Geophysical Research, doi:10.1002/2014JB011294.

Jackson et al., 2008, New views on the structure and rheology of the lithosphere, Journal of the Geological Society, 165, p. 453-465.

McKenzie & Priestley, 2016, Speculations on the formation of cratons and cratonic basins, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 435, p. 94-104.

Lecture 7:

England and Jackson, Active deformation of the continents, Ann. Revs. Earth. Planet. Sci., 17, 197-226, 1989.

McKenzie et al, Characteristics and consequences of flow in the lower crust, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 11,029-11,046, 2000.

England and Houseman, Mechanics of the Tibetan Plateau, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A., v 326, p. 301-320, 1988.

England and Molnar, Active deformation of Asia: from kinematics to dynamics, Science, 278, 647-650, 1997.

Houseman et al, Convective instability of a thickened boundary layer and its relevance for the thermal evolution of continental convergent belts, J. Geophys. Res., 86, p. 6115-6132, 1981.

Lecture 8:

Craig et al, Thermal and tectonic consequences of India underthrusting Tibet, EPSL, 353-354, p.231-239, 2012.

Huppert, The propagation of two-dimensional and axisymmetric viscous gravity currents over a rigid horizontal surface, J. Fluid. Mech., 121, 43-58, 1982.

McKenzie et al, Characteristics and consequences of flow in the lower crust, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 11,029-11,046, 2000.

Copley, The formation of mountain range curvature by gravitational spreading, EPSL, 351-352, p.208-214, 2012.

Copley and McKenzie, Models of crustal flow in the India-Asia collision zone, Geophys. J. Int. , 169, 683-698, 2007.

Copley et al, Evidence for mechanical coupling and strong Indian lower crust beneath southern Tibet, Nature, 472, p.79-81, doi:10.1038/nature09926, 2011.

IDP 2 - Earth Sciences

Overall course reading list:


Top recommendation:


R.T. Pierrehumbert, Principles of Planetary Climate, esp. Chapter 1. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, ISBN:9780521865562, 2012).

Other texts covering large parts of the course:

M. Scheffer, Critical transitions in nature and society.  (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2009).

W.F. Ruddiman, Earth’s climate Past and Future, (2001) W. H. Freeman and Co (New York).

H. Elderfield (ed.) The oceans and marine geochemistry, Treatise on Geochemistry vol. 6 (2006) Elsevier.

S. Emerson and J. Hedges, Chemical Oceanography and the Marine Carbon Cycle, (2008) Cambridge University Press.

J.T.Houghton, Global warming, the complete briefing, (2004), Cambridge University Press.

Goosse H., P.Y. Barriat, W. Lefebvre, M.F. Loutre and V. Zunz, (date of view). Introduction to climate dynamics and climate modeling. Online textbook available at


Useful web resources: International Panel on Climate Change.


Petrology C Planetary Chemistry and Evolution (Helen Williams and Oli Shorttle)

Planetary Chemistry and Evolution - Helen Williams and Oli Shorttle

Text Books

  • De Pater, I., & Lissauer, J. (2015). Planetary sciences / Imke de Pater, University of California, Berkeley & Delft University of Technology, and Jack J. Lissauer, NASA-Ames Research Center, & Stanford University. (Second ed.).
  • Lodders, Katharina, and Jr, Bruce Fegley. (2015). Chemistry of the Solar System. 1st. ed. (Online access restricted to designated PCs in the main UL + affiliate libraries)
  • Treatise on Geochemistry (2003/2014) - 2003 copy in the library, many papers can be found on-line

Light Reading 

  • Sagan, Carl (1980, latest ed. 2013) Cosmos

Lecture 1 - A (non)chondritic Earth (?)

1.1 Core Reading

Longer reads

Lecture 2 - Dust to planetesimals

2.1 - Core Reading

2.3 - Further reading for presenters


Longer reads

2.4 - Online resources

 3. Planetesimals to planets

 3.1 Core Reading



4. Formation of the Moon

4.1 Core Reading 


5 - Planetary veneers and volatiles

5.1 - Core Reading



5.3 - Further reading for presenters


6. Comparative planetology

6.1 Core reading

 Literature (also refer to previous seminars!)

7 - Giant planets at home and abroad

7.1 - Core Reading

7.3 - Further reading for presenters

Longer reads 

  • Planetary Sciences: Second Edition. De Pater and Lissauer. Cambridge University Press. Chapter 13.
  • The Exoplanet Handbook. Perryman. Cambridge University Press.
  • Born of chaos. Batygin et al. Scientific American 2016.

8 - Making a habitable planet

8.1 - Core Reading

8.3 - Further reading for presenters 


Longer reads

  • Langmuir & Broecker. How to build a habitable planet: the story of Earth from the Big Bang to Humankind. Princeton.

8.4 - Online Resources

  • - Catalogue of discovered exoplanets. Enables online plotting of datasets and download of the data.
  • - Web resources for Langmuir and Broecker's book, including slides and figures.
  • - List of planets specifically within their star's habitable zone. Includes plots of orbital characteristics of these systems and discussion of habitability criteria.
  • -calculator - Online tool for calculating the location of habitable zones around stars. An implementation of the Kopparapu et al. 2013/2014 work.