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Michaelmas 2016 Part II Core 1

C1: Geophysics Core Course

Lecture 1 - James Jackson

  • Chen, W.-P., Molnar, P., 1983. Focal depths of intracontinental and intraplate earthquakes and their implications for the thermal and mechanical properties of the lithosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 88, 4183–4214. doi:10.1029/JB088iB05p04183
  • http://earthquake.usgs.gov, n.d.http://neic.usgs.gov, n.d.Jackson, J., McKENZIE, D. a. N., Priestley, K., Emmerson, B., 2008. New views on the structure and rheology of the lithosphere. Journal of the Geological Society 165, 453–465. doi:10.1144/0016-76492007-109Maggi, A., Jackson, J.A., McKenzie, D., Priestley, K., 2000. Earthquake focal depths, effective elastic thickness, and the strength of the continental lithosphere. Geology 28, 495–498. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(2000)282.0.CO;2Molnar, Chen, 1982. Seismicity and Mountain Building (read appendix). Mountain building processes.Rutter, E.H., 1986. On the nomenclature of mode of failure transitions in rocks. Tectonophysics 122, 381–387. doi:10.1016/0040-1951(86)90153-8Scholz, C.H., 1988. The brittle-plastic transition and the depth of seismic faulting. Geol Rundsch 77, 319–328. doi:10.1007/BF01848693

Lecture 2

    Amato, A., Azzara, R., Chiarabba, C., Cimini, G.B., Cocco, M., Di Bona, M., Margheriti, L., Mazza, S., Mele, F., Selvaggi, G., Basili, A., Boschi, E., Courboulex, F., Deschamps, A., Gaffet, S., Bittarelli, G., Chiaraluce, L., Piccinini, D., Ripepe, M., 1998. The 1997 Umbria-Marche, Italy, Earthquake Sequence: A first look at the main shocks and aftershocks. Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2861–2864. doi:10.1029/98GL51842Chiaraluce, L., Ellsworth, W.L., Chiarabba, C., Cocco, M., 2003. Imaging the complexity of an active normal fault system: The 1997 Colfiorito (central Italy) case study. Journal of Geophysical Research B: Solid Earth 108.Crone, A.J., 1997. “The Geology of Earthquakes” by Robert S. Yeats, Kerry Sieh, and Clarence R. Allen. Seismological Research Letters 68, 778–779. doi:10.1785/gssrl.68.5.778Jackson, J.A., Gagnepain, J., Houseman, G., King, G.C.P., Papadimitriou, P., Soufleris, C., Virieux, J., 1982. Seismicity, normal faulting, and the geomorphological development of the Gulf of Corinth (Greece): the Corinth earthquakes of February and March 1981. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 57, 377–397. doi:10.1016/0012-821X(82)90158-3King, G.C.P., Vita-Finzi, C., 1981. Active folding in the Algerian earthquake of 10 October 1980. Nature 292, 22–26. doi:10.1038/292022a0Lyon-Caen, H., Armijo, R., Drakopoulos, J., Baskoutass, J., Delibassis, N., Gaulon, R., Kouskouna, V., Latoussakis, J., Makropoulos, K., Papadimitriou, P., Papanastassiou, D., Pedotti, G., 1988. The 1986 Kalamata (South Peloponnesus) Earthquake: Detailed study of a normal fault, evidences for east-west extension in the Hellenic Arc. J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14967–15000. doi:10.1029/JB093iB12p14967Staff, U.S.G.S., 1990. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake: An Anticipated Event. Science 247, 286–293. doi:10.1126/science.247.4940.286Yielding, G., 1985. Control of rupture by fault geometry during the 1980 El Asnam (Algeria) earthquake. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society 81, 641–670. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.1985.tb06426.xYielding, G., Jackson, J.A., King, G.C.P., Sinvhal, H., Vita-Finzi, C., Wood, R.M., 1981. Relations between surface deformation, fault geometry, seismicity, and rupture characteristics during the El Asnam (Algeria) earthquake of 10 October 1980. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 56, 287–304. doi:10.1016/0012-821X(81)90135-7

Lecture 3 - Alex Copley Copley, A., Avouac, J.-P., Hollingsworth, J., Leprince, S., 2011. The 2001 Mw 7.6 Bhuj earthquake, low fault friction, and the crustal support of plate driving forces in India. Journal of Geophysical Research 116. doi:10.1029/2010JB008137 Copley, A., Mitra, S., Sloan, R.A., Gaonkar, S., Reynolds, K., 2014. Active faulting in apparently stable peninsular India: Rift inversion and a Holocene-age great earthquake on the Tapti Fault. J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth 119, 6650–6666. doi:10.1002/2014JB011294 Cowie, P.A., Scholz, C.H., 1992. Displacement-length scaling relationship for faults: data synthesis and discussion. Journal of Structural Geology 14, 1149–1156. doi:10.1016/0191-8141(92)90066-6 Craig, T.J., Copley, A., Middleton, T.A., 2014. Constraining fault friction in oceanic lithosphere using the dip angles of newly-formed faults at outer rises. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 392, 94–99. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2014.02.024 Lockner, D.A., Morrow, C., Moore, D., Hickman, S., 2011. Low strength of deep San Andreas fault gouge from SAFOD core. Nature 472, 82–85. doi:10.1038/nature09927 Miller, D.D., 1998. Distributed shear, rotation, and partitioned strain along the San Andreas fault, central California. Geology 26, 867–870. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1998)0262.3.CO;2 Mount, V.S., Suppe, J., 1987. State of stress near the San Andreas fault: Implications for wrench tectonics. Geology 15, 1143–1146. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1987)152.0.CO;2 Scholz, C.H., Aviles, C.A., Wesnousky, S.G., 1986. Scaling differences between large interplate and intraplate earthquakes. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 76, 65–70. Lecture 4 Berberian, M., Jackson, J.A., Fielding, E., Parsons, B.E., Priestley, K., Qorashi, M., Talebian, M., Walker, R., Wright, T.J., Baker, C., 2001. The 1998 March 14 Fandoqa earthquake (Mw 6.6) in Kerman province, southeast Iran: re-rupture of the 1981 Sirch earthquake fault, triggering of slip on adjacent thrusts and the active tectonics of the Gowk fault zone. Geophysical Journal International 146, 371–398. doi:10.1046/j.1365-246x.2001.01459.x Massonnet, D., Rossi, M., Carmona, C., Adragna, F., Peltzer, G., Feigl, K., Rabaute, T., 1993. The displacement field of the Landers earthquake mapped by radar interferometry. Nature 364, 138–142. doi:10.1038/364138a0 Wright, T., Parsons, B., Fielding, E., 2001. Measurement of interseismic strain accumulation across the North Anatolian Fault by satellite radar interferometry. Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 2117–2120. doi:10.1029/2000GL012850 Lecture 5 England, P., Molnar, P., 1997. The field of crustal velocity in Asia calculated from Quaternary rates of slip on faults. Geophysical Journal International 130, 551–582. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.1997.tb01853.x Masson, F., Chéry, J., Hatzfeld, D., Martinod, J., Vernant, P., Tavakoli, F., Ghafory-Ashtiani, M., 2005. Seismic versus aseismic deformation in Iran inferred from earthquakes and geodetic data. Geophys. J. Int. 160, 217–226. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2004.02465.x Melgar, D., Crowell, B.W., Bock, Y., Haase, J.S., 2013. Rapid modeling of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake with seismogeodesy. Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 2963–2968. doi:10.1002/grl.50590 Stevens, V.L., Avouac, J.P., 2015. Interseismic coupling on the main Himalayan thrust. Geophys. Res. Lett. 42, 2015GL064845. doi:10.1002/2015GL064845 Lecture 6 Chlieh, M., Avouac, J.P., Sieh, K., Natawidjaja, D.H., Galetzka, J., 2008. Heterogeneous coupling of the Sumatran megathrust constrained by geodetic and paleogeodetic measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research 113. doi:10.1029/2007JB004981 Newman, A.V., 2011. Hidden depths. Nature 474, 441–443. doi:10.1038/474441a Sieh, K., Natawidjaja, D.H., Meltzner, A.J., Shen, C.-C., Cheng, H., Li, K.-S., Suwargadi, B.W., Galetzka, J., Philibosian, B., Edwards, R.L., 2008. Earthquake Supercycles Inferred from Sea-Level Changes Recorded in the Corals of West Sumatra. Science 322, 1674–1678. doi:10.1126/science.1163589 The 2010 Mw 7.8 Mentawai earthquake: Very shallow source of a rare tsunami earthquake determined from tsunami field survey and near-field GPS data, 2012. . Journal of Geophysical Research. Lecture 7 Gourmelen, N., Amelung, F., 2005. Postseismic Mantle Relaxation in the Central Nevada Seismic Belt. Science 310, 1473–1476. doi:10.1126/science.1119798 Hirth, G., Kohlstedt, D., 2004. Rheology of the Upper Mantle and the Mantle Wedge: A View from the Experimentalists, in: Eiler, J. (Ed.), Inside the Subduction Factory. American Geophysical Union, pp. 83–105. Lambeck, K., Smither, C., Johnston, P., 1998. Sea-level change, glacial rebound and mantle viscosity fornorthern Europe. Geophysical Journal International 134, 102–144. doi:10.1046/j.1365-246X.1998.00541.x Mackwell, S.J., Zimmerman, M.E., Kohlstedt, D.L., 1998. High-temperature deformation of dry diabase with application to tectonics on Venus. Journal of Geophysical Research 103, 975. doi:10.1029/97JB02671 Stocker, R.L., Ashby, M.F., 1973. On the rheology of the upper mantle. Rev. Geophys. 11, 391–426. doi:10.1029/RG011i002p00391 Turcotte_D.L. Schubert G.Geodynamics.pdf [WWW Document], 2016. . Scribd. URL https://www.scribd.com/doc/189096877/Geo-Dynamics (accessed 3.20.16). Lecture 8 Alisic, L., Gurnis, M., Stadler, G., Burstedde, C., Ghattas, O., 2012. Multi-scale dynamics and rheology of mantle flow with plates. J. Geophys. Res. 117, B10402. doi:10.1029/2012JB009234 Copley, A., Avouac, J.-P., Royer, J.-Y., 2010. India-Asia collision and the Cenozoic slowdown of the Indian plate: Implications for the forces driving plate motions. Journal of Geophysical Research 115. doi:10.1029/2009JB006634 Forsyth, D., Uyedaf†, S., 1975. On the Relative Importance of the Driving Forces of Plate Motion*. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society 43, 163–200. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.1975.tb00631.x McKenzie, D., Richter, F., 1978. Simple plate models of mantle convection. Lecture 9 - James Jackson Austrheim, H., Boundy, T.M., 1994. Pseudotachylytes Generated During Seismic Faulting and Eclogitization of the Deep Crust. Science 265, 82–83. Bjørnerud, M.G., Austrheim, H., Lund, M.G., 2002. Processes leading to eclogitization (densification) of subducted and tectonically buried crust. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 2252. doi:10.1029/2001JB000527 Brace, W.F., Kohlstedt, D.L., 1980. Limits on lithospheric stress imposed by laboratory experiments. J. Geophys. Res. 85, 6248–6252. doi:10.1029/JB085iB11p06248 Chen, W.-P., Molnar, P., 1983. Focal depths of intracontinental and intraplate earthquakes and their implications for the thermal and mechanical properties of the lithosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 88, 4183–4214. doi:10.1029/JB088iB05p04183 Jackson, J., 2002. Strength of the continental lithosphere: Time to abandon the jelly sandwich? GSA Today 12, 4. doi:10.1130/1052-5173(2002)0122.0.CO;2 Jackson, J., McKENZIE, D. a. N., Priestley, K., Emmerson, B., 2008. New views on the structure and rheology of the lithosphere. Journal of the Geological Society 165, 453–465. doi:10.1144/0016-76492007-109 Jackson, J.A., Austrheim, H., McKenzie, D., Priestley, K., 2004. Metastability, mechanical strength, and the support of mountain belts. Geology 32, 625–628. doi:10.1130/G20397.1 Maggi, A., Jackson, J.A., McKenzie, D., Priestley, K., 2000. Earthquake focal depths, effective elastic thickness, and the strength of the continental lithosphere. Geology 28, 495–498. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(2000)282.0.CO;2 McKenzie, D., Jackson, J., Priestley, K., 2005. Thermal structure of oceanic and continental lithosphere. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 233, 337–349. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2005.02.005 Lecture 10 - Nicky White Lecture 11 Lecture 12 Lecture 13 Lecture 14 Lecture 15 Bickle, M., Chadwick, A., Huppert, H.E., Hallworth, M., Lyle, S., 2007. Modelling carbon dioxide accumulation at Sleipner: Implications for underground carbon storage. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 255, 164–176. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.12.013 Bickle, M.J., 2009. Geological carbon storage. Nature Geosci 2, 815–818. doi:10.1038/ngeo687 Boait, F.C., White, N.J., Bickle, M.J., Chadwick, R.A., Neufeld, J.A., Huppert, H.E., 2012. Spatial and temporal evolution of injected CO2 at the Sleipner Field, North Sea. J. Geophys. Res. 117, B03309. doi:10.1029/2011JB008603 Huppert, H.E., Neufeld, J.A., 2014. The Fluid Mechanics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 46, 255–272. Lyle, S., Huppert, H.E., Hallworth, M., Bickle, M., Chadwick, A., 2005. Axisymmetric gravity currents in a porous medium. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 543, 293–302. doi:10.1017/S0022112005006713 Lecture 16 Huppert, H.E., 1982. The propagation of two-dimensional and axisymmetric viscous gravity currents over a rigid horizontal surface. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 121, 43–58. doi:10.1017/S0022112082001797 Rignot, E., Mouginot, J., Scheuchl, B., 2011. Ice Flow of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Science 333, 1427–1430. doi:10.1126/science.1208336 Zhang, P.-Z., Shen, Z., Wang, M., Gan, W., Bürgmann, R., Molnar, P., Wang, Q., Niu, Z., Sun, J., Wu, J., Hanrong, S., Xinzhao, Y., 2004. Continuous deformation of the Tibetan Plateau from global positioning system data. Geology 32, 809–812. doi:10.1130/G20554.1 Copley, A., McKenzie, D., 2007. Models of crustal flow in the India-Asia collision zone. Geophys. J. Int. 169, 683–698. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2007.03343.x Lecture 17 - David Al-Attar Lecture 18 Lecture 19 French, S.W., Romanowicz, B., 2015. Broad plumes rooted at the base of the Earth’s mantle beneath major hotspots. Nature 525, 95–99. doi:10.1038/nature14876 Fukao, Y., Obayashi, M., 2013. Subducted slabs stagnant above, penetrating through, and trapped below the 660 km discontinuity. J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth 118, 2013JB010466. doi:10.1002/2013JB010466 Woodhouse, J.H., Dziewonski, A.M., 1989. Seismic Modelling of the Earth’s Large-Scale Three-Dimensional Structure. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences 328, 291–308. Lecture 20 Deuss, A., Woodhouse, J., 2001. Seismic Observations of Splitting of the Mid-Transition Zone Discontinuity in Earth’s Mantle. Science 294, 354–357. doi:10.1126/science.1063524 Ritsema, J., van Heijst, H.J., Woodhouse, J.H., 2004. Global transition zone tomography. J. Geophys. Res. 109, B02302. doi:10.1029/2003JB002610 Woodhouse, J.H., Dziewonski, A.M., 1984. Mapping the upper mantle: Three-dimensional modeling of earth structure by inversion of seismic waveforms. J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5953–5986. doi:10.1029/JB089iB07p05953 Zhu, H., Bozda?, E., Peter, D., Tromp, J., 2012. Structure of the European upper mantle revealed by adjoint tomography. Nature Geosci 5, 493–498. doi:10.1038/ngeo1501

Lecture 21

  • Bercovici, D., 2015. Treatise on Geophysics: Volume 7: Mantle dynamics. Elsevier. 2nd edition. doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-53802-4.00125-1. This is available at the Betty & Gordon Moore Library
  • McKenzie, D.P., 1983. The Earth’s MantleSci. Am. 249, 66–78. doi:10.1038/ scientificamerican0983-66.
  • McKenzie, D.P., Richter, F., 1976. Convection Currents in the Earth’s MantleSci. Am. 235, 72–89. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1176-72.
  • Schubert, G., Turcotte, D.L., Olson, P., 2001. Mantle convection in the Earth and Planets. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511612879.

Lecture 22

Lecture 23

Lecture 24