Reading List - Option 3 (2016)
Reading list for Tim Holland - Metamorphic topics, 6 Lectures
- A Philpotts and J Ague. ‘Principles of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology’.
- R Vernon and G Clarke. ‘Principles of Metamorphic Petrology’.
Schreinemakers/projections (1 & 2)
- Nordstrom & Munoz. 1985. ‘Geochemical thermodynamics’. Chapter 4. (good intro)
- Yardley, B. 1989. ‘An introduction to metamorphic petrology’. Appendix. (basic intro)
- Spear 1993. ‘Metamorphic phase equilibria and pressure-temperature-time paths’. Chapters 5,8.
- Philpotts and Ague. ‘Principles of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology’. Chapter 8.
Pelites (1 & 2)
- Yardley, B. 1989. ‘An introduction to metamorphic petrology’. Chapter 3.
- Droop 1981. . Schweiz Min und Pet Mitt 61, 237–273. Austria
- Philpotts and Ague. ‘Principles of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology’. Chapter 19.
- Weller et al 2013. Quantifying Barrovian metamorphism in the Danba Structural Culmination of eastern Tibet. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 31, 909–935
- White et al. 2014. New mineral activity–composition relations for thermodynamic calculations in metapelitic systems. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 32, 261–286
- White et al. 2014. The effect of Mn on mineral stability in metapelites revisited: new a–x relations for manganese-bearing minerals. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 32, 809–828
Mixed volatile equilibria (3)
- Spear 1993. ‘Metamorphic phase equilibria and pressure-temperature-time paths’. Chapter 12.
- Powell 1979. ‘Equilibrium thermodynamics in petrology’. Chapter 8.
- Yardley, B. 1989. ‘An introduction to metamorphic petrology’. Chapter 5.
- Baker J and Matthews A (1994) Textural and isotopic development of marble assemblages during the Barrovian-style M2 metamorphic event, Naxos, Greece. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 116, 130-144.
- Rice J.M. 1977 Progressive metamorphism of impure dolomitic limestone in the Marysville Aureole, Montana. American Journal of Science, 277, 1-24. (natural example of contact metamorphosed siliceous dolomites)
- Greenwood, H.J. 1975 Buffering of pore fluids by metamorphic reactions. American Journal of Science, 275, 573-594. (simple no-infilltration calculations. note that these do not allow for fixed porosity)
- Philpotts and Ague. ‘Principles of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology’. Chapter 20.
Granulite facies (4 & 5)
- Harley 1989. The origin of granulites. Geol Mag 126, 215–331.
- Waters and Whales. 1984. Dehydration melting and the granulite transition in metapelites from southern Namaqualand, S. Africa. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 88, 269–75.
- Waters D.J. 1988. Partial melting and the formation of granulite facies assemblages in C3 Petrology TJBH 3 Namaqualand, South Africa. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 6 387–404.
- Hansen, E C, Newton R C and Janardhan A S 1984. Fluid inclusions in rocks from the amphibolite-facies gneiss to charnockite progression in southern Karnataka, India : direct evidence concerning the fluids of granulite facies metamorphism. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 2, 249–264.
- Bohlen, S.R. (1991): On the formation of granulites. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 9, 223–229.
- Lamb, W.M., Valley, J.W. (1984): Metamorphism of reduced granulites in low-CO2 vapor-free environment. Nature, 312, 56–58.
- Waters, D.J. (1991) Hercynite-quartz granulites: phase relations, and implications for crustal processes. European Journal of Mineralogy, 3, 367–386.
- Newton, R.C., Smith, J.V., Windley, B.F. (1980): Carbonic metamorphism, granulites and crustal growth. Nature, 288, 45–50.
- Jennings & Holland (2015, JPet 56, 869): A Simple Thermodynamic Model for Melting of Peridotite in the System NCFMASOCr
- White et al (2007), Journal of Metamorphic Geology 25, 511: Progress relating to calculation of partial melting equilibria for metapelites
- Phillips, 1981 Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 75, 377: Water activity changes across an amphibolite-granulite facies transition, Broken Hill, Australia
- Forbes et al. (2008), Precambrian Research 166, 338: Reinterpretation of the tectonic context of high-temperature metamorphism in the Broken Hill Block, NSW, and implications on the Palaeo- to Meso-Proterozoic evolution
Also a useful guide on the web from Dave Waters:
Oxidation/reduction and fluids (6)
- Ferry 1981. Petrology of graphitic sulphide-rich schists from south central Maine. An example of desul?dation during prograde regional metamorphism. Am. Min. 66, 908–931.
- Spear 1993. Metamorphic phase equilibria and pressure-temperature-time paths. Chapter 18.
- Poulson SR & Ohmoto H 1989. Devolatilisation equilibria in graphite-pyrite-pyrrhotite bearing pelites with an application to magma-pelite interaction. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 101, 418–425.
- Frey M, Bucher K, Frank E & Mullis, J. 1980. Alpine metamorphism along the geotraverse Basel–Chiasso - a review. Eclog. Geol. Helvet. 73, 527-546.
Philpotts & Ague. Chapter 11.
- Frost & McCammon 2008. The Redox State of Earth’s Mantle. Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 36:389?420
- Lazarov et al 2009. Thermal state and redox conditions of the Kaapvaal mantle: A study of xenoliths from the Finsch mine, South Africa. Lithos 112, 913
Reading list for Marian Holness - Lectures 7- 11 Igneous Petrography
This is an introductory course on microstructures and how we can use them to interpret rock history, with particular application to igneous rocks. It is a vast subject and we can only touch on a few essential things. These general source books are a good place to look things up.
- Granitic Pegmatites (2012) Elements, vol. 8, number 4. There are many interesting articles touching on issues of crystal growth.
- Higgins, M.D. (2006) Quantitative textural measurements in igneous and metamorphic petrology. CUP. A good source if you are thinking of doing microstructural work in your Part III project
- Kretz, R. (1994) Metamorphic Crystallisation. Wiley.
- Tiller, W.A. (1977) On the cross-pollenation of crystallisation ideas between metallurgy and geology. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 2, 125-151.
- Vernon, R.H. (2004) A practical guide to rock microstructure. CUP. £34.99. Highly recommended, especially if you are planning to do a hard-rock PhD. This book is pretty much the first place to look if you need to understand any particular microstructure.
Crystal nucleation and growth
Topics covered in this introduction include nucleation (homogenous and heterogeneous, including the effects of pore size in nucleation inhibition) and crystal growth mechanisms. The balance between nucleation and growth determines the overall grain size and grain size distribution in the rock.
Nucleation and crystal growth
- Cesare, B., Ferrero, S., Salvioli,-Mariani, E., Pedron, D. & Cavallo, A. (2009) “Nanogranite” and glassy inclusions: the anatectic melt in migmatites and granulites. Geology, 37: 627-630.
- Davis, M.J., & Ihinger, P.D. (1998) Heterogeneous nucleation on bubbles in silicate melt. American Mineralogist, 83, 1008-1015.
- Hammer, J.E., Sharp, T.G. & Wessel, P. (2010) Heterogeneous nucleation and epitaxial crystal growth of magmatic minerals. Geology, 38, 367-370.
- Putnis, A & Mauthe, G. (2001) The effect of pore size on cementation in porous rocks. Geofluids, 1, 37-41.
- Kirkpatrick, R.J. (1981) Kinetics of crystallization of igneous rocks. Mineralogical Society of America, Reviews in Mineralogy, 8, 321-398.
Crystal size distributions
- Cashman, K.V. (1988) Crystallisation of Mount St. Helen’s 1980-1986 dacite: a quantitative textural approach. Bulletin of Volcanology, 50, 194-209.
- Marsh, B.D. (1988) Crystal size distribution (CSD) in rocks and the kinetics and dynamics of crystallisation. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 99, 277-291.
- Roselle, G.T., Baumgartner, L.P. & Chapman, J.A. (1997) Nucleation-dominated crystallisation of forsterite in the Ubehebe Peak contact aureole, California. Geology, 25, 823-826.
- Swanson, S.E. (1977) Relation of nucleation and crystal-growth rate to the development of granitic textures. American Mineralogist, 62, 966-978.
Pattern formation during grain growth (relevant to the first practical)
- Boudreau, A.E. (1987) Pattern formation during crystallisation and the formation of fine-scale layering. in: Parson, I. (ed.) Origins of igneous layering, 453-471.
- Holness, M.B. (1997) Geochemical self-organization of olivine-grade contact-metamorphosed chert nodules in dolomite marble, Kilchrist, Skye. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 15: 765-776
In this lecture we cover the controls on crystal shape, starting with interface-controlled growth and moving onto diffusion-limited growth. The practical following the lecture gives you the opportunity to look at rocks with dendritic and spherulitic microstructures. There is also a suite of samples demonstrating the progressive metamorphism of chert nodules in dolomite, with the onset of pattern formation at olivine-grade.
The basics of diffusion-limited growth
Porter, D.A. & Easterling, K.E. (1981) Phase transformations in metals and alloys. Chapter 4 (B 30.107 or on Moodle)
- Donaldson, C.H. (1974) Olivine crystal types in harrisitic rocks of the Rhum pluton and in Archean spinifex rocks. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 85, 1721-1726.
- Donaldson, C.H. (1976) An experimental investigation of olivine morphology. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 57, 187-213.
- Faure, F., Trolliard, G., Nicollet, C. & Montel, J.-M. (2003) A developmental model of olivine morphology as a function of the cooling rate and the degree of undercooling. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 145, 251-263.
- Jamtveit, B., and Andersen, T.B. (1992) Morphological instabilities during rapid growth of metamorphic garnets. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 19, 176-184.
- Keith, H.D., & Padden, F.J. (1963) A phenomenological theory of spherulitic crystallisation. Journal of Applied Physics, 34, 2409-2421.
- Lofgren, G. (1971) Spherulitic textures in glassy and crystalline rocks. Journal of Geophysical Research, 76, 5635-5648.
- Shore, M. & Fowler, A.D. (1999) The origin of spinifex texture in komatiites. Nature, 397, 691-694.
Eutectics and pegmatites
- Fenn, P.M. (1986) On the origin of graphic granite. American Mineralogist, 71, 323-330.
- Lentz, D.R., and Fowler, A.D. (1992) A dynamic model for graphic quartz-feldspar intergrowths in granitic pegmatites in the southwestern Grenville Province. Canadian Mineralogist, 30, 571-585.
- Lofgren, G. (1980) Experimental studies of the dynamic crystallisation of silicate melts. in: Hargraves, R.B. (ed.) Physics of Magmatic Processes. Chapter 11. (B 30. 104)
- London , D. (2009) The origin of primary textures in granitic pegmatites. Canadian Mineralogist, 47, 697-724.
Once reaction is over, and if the rock is not being deformed rapidly, microstructures evolve towards a minimum energy state, in which grain shape and the topology of minor phases (such as fluid) are controlled by interfacial energies. If we know something about the relative magnitudes of interfacial energies we can make predictions about what these microstructures look like and therefore predict how fluids move through the Earth.
The practical provides the opportunity to examine microstructures from well-equilibrated environments and to develop a feel for the length- and time-scales over which interfacial energies affect microstructure.
Theory of textural equilibrium
- Beere, W. (1975) A unifying theory of the stability of penetrating liquid phases and sintering pores. Acta Metallurgica, 23, 131-145.
- Bulau, J.R., Waff, H.S. & Tyburczy, J.A. (1979) Mechanical and thermodynamic constraints on fluid distribution in partial melts. Journal of Geophysical Research, 84, 6102-6108.
- Holness M.B. 1993 Temperature and pressure dependence of quartz-aqueous fluid dihedral angles: the control of adsorbed H2O on the permeability of quartzites. Earth Planetary Science Letters 117: 363-377.
- Holness, M.B. 2006 Melt-solid dihedral angles of common minerals in natural rocks. Journal of Petrology, 47, 791-800.
- Laporte D., & Provost, A. (2000) Equilibrium geometry of a fluid phase in a polycrystalline aggregate with anisotropic surface energies: Dry grain boundaries. Journal of Geophysical Research, 105, 25937-25953.
Applications to natural systems
- Cheadle, M.J., Elliott, M.T. and McKenzie, D. (2004) Percolation threshold and permeability of crystallising igneous rocks: the importance of textural equilibrium. Geology, 32, 757-760.
- Hunter, R.H. (1987) Textural equilibrium in layered igneous rocks. In: (ed. Parsons, I.) Origins of igneous layering. Dordrecht: D. Reidel. pp. 473–503.
- Laporte, D., Rapaille, C. & Provost, A. (1997) Wetting angles, equilibrium melt geometry, and the permeability threshold of partially molten crustal protoliths. In: Granite: From segregation of melt to emplacement fabrics. (eds. Bouchez, J.-L., Hutton, D.H. & Stephens, W.E.) pp. 31-54. Kluwer Acad., Norwell, Mass.
- Laporte, D. & Watson, E.B. (1995) Experimental and theoretical constraints on melt distribution in crustal sources: the effect of crystalline anisotropy on melt interconnectivity. Chemical Geology, 124, 161-184.
- Minarik, W.G. & Watson, E.B. (1995) Interconnectivity of carbonate melt at low melt fraction. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 133, 423-437.
Microstructural evolution in cumulates
This lecture shows how we can apply our understanding of nucleation and crystal growth to decoding the solidification history of plutonic rocks. We will focus primarily on large (>1000m) bodies of mafic magma, in which gravitationally-driven separation of solids from residual liquid drives fractionation. Key to understanding the processes occurring during solidification is observation of incompletely solidified material such as drillcore through lava lakes and glassy crystalline nodules.
Physical processes in cumulates
- Morse, S.A. (1986) Convection in aid of adcumulus growth. Journal of Petrology, 27, 1183-1214.
- Sparks, R.S.J., Huppert, H.E., Kerr, R.C., McKenzie, D.P. and Tait, S.R. (1985) Postcumulus processes in layered intrusions. Geological Magazine, 122, 555-568.
- Tait, S.R. & Jaupart, C. (1992) Compositional convection in a reactive crystalline mush and melt differentiation. Journal of Geophysical Research, 97, 6735-6756.
- Wager, L.R., Brown, G.M. & Wadsworth, W.J. (1960) Types of igneous cumulates. Journal of Petrology, 1, 73-85.
Microstructures in cumulates and their interpretation
- Boorman, S., Boudreau, A. and Kruger, F.J. (2004) The Lower Zone – Critical Zone transition of the Bushveld Complex: a quantitative textural study. Journal of Petrology, 45, 1209-1235.
- Campbell, I.H. (1987) Distribution of orthocumulate textures in the Jimberlana Intrusion. Journal of Geology, 95, 35-54.
- Holness, M.B., Anderson, A.T., Martin V.M., Maclennan, J., Passmore E., & Schwindinger, K. (2007) Textures in partially solidified crystalline nodules: a window into the pore structure of slowly cooled mafic intrusions. Journal of Petrology, 48, 1243-1264.
- Holness, M.B., Humphreys, M.C.S., Sides, R., Helz, R.T. and Tegner, C. (2012) Towards an understanding of disequilibrium dihedral angles in mafic rocks. Journal of Geophysical Research, 117, doi: 10.1029/2011JB008902.
- Holness, M.B., Richardson, C. and Helz, R.T. (2012) Disequilibrium dihedral angles in dolerite sills: a new proxy for cooling rate. Geology, 40, 795-798.
- Hunter, R.H. (1996) Texture development in cumulate rocks. In: (ed. Cawthorn, R.G.) Layered Intrusions. Developments in Petrology, 15, 77-101. Elsevier Science B.V.
- Walker, D., Jurewicz S. & Watson, E.B. (1988) Adcumulus dunite growth in a laboratory thermal gradient. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 99, 306-319.
Layered Intrusions: Rum and Skaergaard
This lecture provides an introduction to layered intrusions, using two end-members. The classic Skaergaard intrusion is the one that started it all (and incidentally resulted in a hiatus in our developing understanding of magma plumbing systems as it is so iconic that no-one could imagine anything looking or behaving different to Skaergaard), forming from closed-system fractionation. The Rum magma chamber was likely to have been more typical of what we imagine shallow-level magma storage immediately feeding the overlying volcano.
The practical session will provide the opportunity to examine the classic fractionation sequence developed in the Skaergaard.
- Emeleus, C. H., Cheadle, M. J., Hunter, R. H., Upton, B. G. J., & Wadsworth, W. J. (1996) The Rum Layered Suite. In Layered Intrusions (eds R.G. Cawthorn, R.G.), 403-439, Developments in Petrology, 15. The Netherlands: Elsevier.
- Emeleus, C. H. (1997) Geology of Rum and the adjacent islands. Memoir of the British Geological Survey, Sheet 60. pp.170.
- Holness M.B. and Winpenny B. (2008) The Unit 12 allivalite, Eastern Layered Intrusion, Isle of Rum: a textural and geochemical study of an open-system magma chamber. Geological Magazine, 146, 437-450.
- O’Driscoll, B., Donaldson, C.H., Troll, V.R., Jerram, D.A. & Emeleus, C.H. (2007) An origin for harrisitic and granular olivine in the Rum Layered Suite, NW Scotland: a crystal size distribution study. Journal of Petrology, 48, 253-270.
- Troll, V., Emeleus, C.H. & Donaldson, C.H. (2000) Caldera formation in the Rum Central Igneous Complex, Scotland. Bulletin of Volcanology, 62, 301-317.
- Holness, M.B., Stripp, G., Humphreys, M.C.S., Veklser, I.V., Nielsen, T.F.D. and Tegner, C. (2011) Silicate liquid immiscibility within the crystal mush: late-stage magmatic microstructures in the Skaergaard intrusion, East Greenland. Journal of Petrology, 52, 175-222.
- Irvine, T.N., Andersen, J.C. Ø. & Brooks, C.K. (1998) Included blocks (and blocks within blocks) in the Skaergaard intrusion: geological relations and the origins of rhythmic modally graded layers. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 110, 1398-1447.
- Jakobsen, J.K., Veksler, I.V., Tegner, C. & Brooks, C.K. (2005) Immiscible iron- and silica-rich melts in basalt petrogenesis documented in the Skaergaard Intrusion. Geology, 33, 885-888.
- McBirney, A.R. (1996) The Skaergaard intrusion. In: (Cawthorn, R.G.ed). Layered Intrusions. 147-180.