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Option 3 - 2016

Reading List - Option 3 (2016)

Please note that if references are marked with an asterisk (*) , they have been highlighted by your lecturers as being particularly useful to you.

Part II/III Options Course O3
Igneous and Metamorphic Processes - John Maclennan

Lectures 6-11: Icelandic Magmatism

Lecture 6: The geology, petrology and geophysics of Iceland
The active rift zones and volcanic systems. Flank zones. Ridge Jumps. Accretion of the upper crust. Crustal thickness variations and mantle seismic tomography

Practical 6: Estimates of the mantle potential temperature under Iceland
Olivine-liquid equilibria. REE geochemistry and crustal thickness. Seismic velocity.

Lecture 7: Melt generation at mid-ocean ridges
Upwelling at mid-ocean ridges. Models of melting and prediction of basalt geochemistry circa 1992. Comparison with observations. Improving the models.

Practical 7: Volcanism and glaciation in Iceland. Relationship between eruption rates and glaciation. Magma chamber processes. Mantle melting.

Lecture 8: Mantle heterogeneity under Iceland
Iceland in the North Atlantic. Variation within Iceland. Variation within single volcanic systems. Nature of recycled material in the source. Components galore. Consequences of melting a heterogeneous source.

Practical 8: Constraints on mantle upwelling rates REE composition of basalts and crustal thickness. U-series disequilibrium.

Lecture 9: Melt transport under ridges
Constraints on melt transport rates. Evidence for channelisation – dunite formation. How do channels form? How are melts focussed to the ridge axis?

Practical 9: Flow and melting of heterogeneous mantle under the North Atlantic - Understanding geochemical asymmetry around Iceland. Linking geochemical variations on the Reykjanes Ridge to V-Shaped Ridge record of mantle temperature variations. Plume fluxes.

Lecture 10: The ridge filter: Mixing and crystallisation in magma chambers
Location of magma chambers. Fractional crystallisation. Mixing.

Practical 10: Crystallisation in the Icelandic crust

Barometric methods: Cpx-liquid equilibria, Olivine-plagioclase-augite-liquid co-saturation. Depth range of crystallisation, products of crystallisation. Petrography of Icelandic basalts and crustal xenoliths.

Lecture 11: Magmatic processes in the lead-up to large eruptions.
Laki and other large fissure eruptions. Rhyolites and hydrothermal activity. Crustal assimilation. The lateral flow debate.

Practical 11: The petrologic method
The Laki eruption.

Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems