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Option 3 - 2016

Reading List - Option 3 (2016)

Please note that if references are marked with an asterisk (*) , they have been highlighted by your lecturers as being particularly useful to you.

Part II/III Options Course O3
Igneous and Metamorphic Processes - John Maclennan

Lectures 6-11: Icelandic Magmatism

Lecture 6: The geology, petrology and geophysics of Iceland
The active rift zones and volcanic systems. Flank zones. Ridge Jumps. Accretion of the upper crust. Crustal thickness variations and mantle seismic tomography

Practical 6: Estimates of the mantle potential temperature under Iceland
Olivine-liquid equilibria. REE geochemistry and crustal thickness. Seismic velocity.

Lecture 7: Melt generation at mid-ocean ridges
Upwelling at mid-ocean ridges. Models of melting and prediction of basalt geochemistry circa 1992. Comparison with observations. Improving the models.

Practical 7: Volcanism and glaciation in Iceland. Relationship between eruption rates and glaciation. Magma chamber processes. Mantle melting.

Lecture 8: Mantle heterogeneity under Iceland
Iceland in the North Atlantic. Variation within Iceland. Variation within single volcanic systems. Nature of recycled material in the source. Components galore. Consequences of melting a heterogeneous source.

Practical 8: Constraints on mantle upwelling rates REE composition of basalts and crustal thickness. U-series disequilibrium.

Lecture 9: Melt transport under ridges
Constraints on melt transport rates. Evidence for channelisation – dunite formation. How do channels form? How are melts focussed to the ridge axis?

Practical 9: Flow and melting of heterogeneous mantle under the North Atlantic
  • Understanding geochemical asymmetry around Iceland. Linking geochemical variations on the Reykjanes Ridge to V-Shaped Ridge record of mantle temperature variations. Plume fluxes.
  • Murton BJ, Taylor RN, Thirlwall MF, Plume-ridge interaction: A geochemical perspective from the Reykjanes Ridge, Journal of Petrology 43 (11): 1987-2012, 2002
  • Shorttle et al., Control of the symmetry of plume ridge interaction by spreading-ridge geometry, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 11, Q0AC05, 2010
  • Poore et al., Ocean circulation and mantle melting controlled by radial flow of hot pulses in the Iceland plume, Nature Geoscience, 4, 558-561, 2011
  • SM Jones, BJ Murton, JG Fitton, NJ White, J Maclennan, RL Walters, A joint geochemical–geophysical record of time-dependent mantle convection south of Iceland, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 386, 86-97, 2014

Lecture 10: The ridge filter: Mixing and crystallisation in magma chambers
Location of magma chambers. Fractional crystallisation. Mixing.

  • Maclennan, J., Concurrent mixing and cooling of melts under Iceland, Journal of Petrology, 49, 1931-1953, 2008.
  • Winpenny, B, and Maclennan, J., A partial record of mixing of mantle melts preserved in Icelandic phenocrysts, Journal of Petrology, 52, 1791-1812, 2011.
  • Maclennan J, McKenzie D, Gronvold K, et al. Crustal accretion under northern Iceland Earth and Planetary Science Letters 191 (3-4): 295-310 SEP 15 2001
  • Maclennan J, McKenzie D, Gronvold K, et al. Melt mixing and crystallization under Theistareykir, northeast Iceland Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 4: Art. No. 8624 NOV 15 2003
  • A Thomson, J Maclennan, The distribution of olivine compositions in Icelandic basalts and picrites, Journal of Petrology 54 (4), 745-768, 2013
  • Gee MAM, Taylor RN, Thirlwall MF, et al. Axial magma reservoirs located by variation in lava chemistry along Iceland's mid-ocean ridge, Geology 28 (8): 699-702 AUG 2000
  • Halldorsson, S, et al., Isotope-heterogeneity of the Thjorsa lava – implications for mantle sources and crustal processes within the Eastern Rift Zone, Iceland. Chemical Geology, Volume 255, Issues 3-4, 15, Pages 305-316.

Practical 10: Crystallisation in the Icelandic crust

Barometric methods: Cpx-liquid equilibria, Olivine-plagioclase-augite-liquid co-saturation. Depth range of crystallisation, products of crystallisation. Petrography of Icelandic basalts and crustal xenoliths.

  • Putirka KD, et al., New clinopyroxene-liquid thermobarometers for mafic, evolved, and volatile-bearing lava compositions, with applications to lavas from Tibet and the Snake River Plain, Idaho, America Mineralogy, 88, 1542-1554, 2003
  • Yang, HJ, Kinzler, RJ, Grove, TL, Experiments and models of anhydrous, basaltic olivine-plagioclase-augite saturated melts from 0.001 to 10 kbar, Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 124, 1-18, 1996
  • Maclennan, J, et al., Crustal accretion under northern Iceland, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 191, 295-310, 2001

Lecture 11: Magmatic processes in the lead-up to large eruptions.
Laki and other large fissure eruptions. Rhyolites and hydrothermal activity. Crustal assimilation. The lateral flow debate.

  • Sigmundsson, F. et al., Intrusion Triggering of the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull explosive eruption, Nature, 468, 426-432, 2010
  • Sigmundsson, F. et al., Segmented lateral dyke growth in a rifting event at Bardarbunga volcanic system, Iceland, Nature, 517, 191-195, 2015
  • Gee MAM, Taylor RN, Thirlwall MF, et al. Axial magma reservoirs located by variation in lava chemistry along Iceland's mid-ocean ridge, Geology 28 (8): 699-702 AUG 2000
  • Nicholson, H, Condomines, M, Fitton, JG, et al., Geochemical and isotopic evidence for crustal assimilation beneath Krafla, Iceland, Journal of Petrology 32 (5), 1005-1020, 1991
  • Sigurdsson, H and Sparks, RSJ, Lateral Magma flow within rifted Icelandic crust, Nature, 274, 126-130, 1978
  • E Passmore, J Maclennan, G Fitton, T Thordarson, Mush disaggregation in basaltic magma chambers: evidence from the AD 1783 Laki eruption, Journal of Petrology 53 (12), 2593-2623, 2012
  • DA Neave, E Passmore, J Maclennan, G Fitton, T Thordarson, Crystal–melt relationships and the record of deep mixing and crystallization in the ad 1783 Laki Eruption, Iceland, Journal of Petrology 54 (8), 1661-1690, 2013
  • ME Hartley, T Thordarson, Formation of Öskjuvatn caldera at Askja, North Iceland: Mechanism of caldera collapse and implications for the lateral flow hypothesis, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 227, 85-101, 2012
  • Hartley ME, Maclennan, J, Edmonds M, Thordarson, T, Reconstructing the deep CO2 degassing behaviour of large basaltic fissure eruptions, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 393, 120-131, 2014

Practical 11: The petrologic method
The Laki eruption.

Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems