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Summer Temperatures (°C)

Present-day summer temperaturesKey (oC)Warm event [40 ka] summer temperatures
Left: Present-day;  Right: Warm event (c. 40,000 yrs BP)


Stage 3 Publications

Journal Papers

  • Alfano, M.J., E.J. Barron, D. Pollard, B. Huntley & J. Allen, 2003. Comparison of climate model results with European vegetation and permafrost during Oxygen Isotope Stage Three. Quaternary Research 59, 97-107.
  • Aldhouse-Green, S. (reviewer), 2007. T.H van Andel & W. Davies (eds.), Neanderthals and Modern Humans in the European Landscape during the Last Glaciation. Cambridge: Monograph, McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research. The Prehistoric Society-Book Review, 09/11/2007 10:54
  • Arnold, N.S., T.H. van Andel & V. Valen, 2002. Extent and Dynamics of the Scandinavian Ice-sheet during Oxygen Isotope Stage 3 (60,000-30,000 yr B.P.). Quaternary Research 57, 38-48.
  • Barron, E.J. & D. Pollard, 2002. High-resolution climate simulations of Oxygen Isotope Stage 3 in Europe. Quaternary Research 58, 296-309.
  • Bocquet-Appel, J.-P. & P.-Y. Demars, 2000. Neanderthal contraction and modern human colonization of Europe. Antiquity 74, 544-552.
  • Bocquet-Appel, J.-R. and Demars, P.-Y. 2000. Population kinetics in the Upper Palaeolithic in Western Europe. Journal of Archaeological Science 27, 551-570.
  • Coope, G.R., 2002. Changes in the thermal climate in Northwestern Europe during marine oxygen isotope stage 3, estimate from fossil insect assemblages. Quaternary Research 57, 401-408.
  • Davies, W., J.R. Stewart & T.H. van Andel, 2000. Neandertal Landscapes - A Preview. In C. Stringer, R.N.E. Barton & J. C. Finlayson (eds.). Neanderthals on the Edge, pp. 1-8. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
  • Davies, S.W.G., T.H. van Andel & J.R. Stewart, (in press). An Overview of the Results of the Stage Three Project: Hominids in the Landscape. CALPE 2001. Chicago IL: Chicago University Press
  • Huntley, B., P.C. Tzedakis, J.-L. de Beaulieu, D. Pollard, M. Alfano & J. Allen, 2003. Comparison between Biome3.5 models and pollen data. Quaternary 59, 195-212.
  • Lambeck, K., Y. Yokoyama & T. Purcell, 2002. Into and out of the Last Glacial Maximum: sea-level change during Oxygen Isotope Stage 3 and 2. Quaternary Science Reviews 21, 343-360.
  • Markova, A.K., A.N. Simakova, A.Y. Puzachenko & L.M. Kitaev, 2002. Environments of the Russian Plain during the Middle Valdai Briansk Interstade (33,000-24,000 yr B.P.) indicated by fossil mammals and plants. Quaternary Research 57, 391-400.
  • Markova A.K., A.N. Simakova & A.Yu. Puzachenko, 2002. Ecosystems of Eastern Europe during Last Glacial Maximum of Valdai Glaciation (24-18 ka) by floristic and theriological data (in Russian). Doklady Akademii Nauk 389, 681-685.
  • Olszewski, D.I. (reviewer of).  T.H. van Andel & W. Davies (eds.), Neanderthals and Modern Humans in the European Landscape during the Last Glaciation. Cambridge: Monograph of McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research. PaleoAnthropology 2006: 116-119.
  • Pollard, D. & E.J. Barron, 2003. Causes of model-data discrepancies in European climate during Oxygen Isotope Stage 3 with insights from the last glacial maximum. Quaternary Research 59, 108-113.
  • Stewart, J.R., 1999. Intraspecific variation in modern and Quaternary European Lagopus. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 89, 159 – 168.
  • Stewart, J.R., (in press. The Fate of the Neanderthals – a special case or simply part of the broader Late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions? Proceedings of the XIVe Congres de l’Union Internationale des Sciences Préhistoriques et Protohistoriques à Liège, 2001.
  • Stewart, J.R. & A.M. Lister, 2001. Cryptic northen refugia and the origins of modern biota. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16, 608-613.
  • van Andel, T.H., 2002. Reconstructing climate and landscape of the middle part of the last glaciation in Europe - The Stage 3 Project. Quaternary Research 57, 2-8.
  • van Andel, T.H. & P.C. Tzedakis, 1996. Palaeolithic Landscapes 140,000 to 30,000 Years BP - A Summary. In: Colloquium X "The Origins of Modern Man", XIII Congress of the Union Internationale des Sciences Préhistoriques et Protohistoriques, Colloquia: 5. The Lower and Middle Palaeolithic. Colloquium X, 191-203.
  • van Andel, T.H. & P.C. Tzedakis, 1996. Palaeolithic landscapes of Europe and Environs, 150,000 - 25,000 years ago. Quaternary Science Reviews 15, 481-500.
  • van Andel, T.H. & P.C. Tzedakis, 1998. Priority and opportunity: reconstructing the European Middle Palaeolithic climate and landscape. In J. Bailey (ed.), Science in Archaeology: An Agenda for the Future pp. 37-46. London: English Heritage.
  • van Huissteden, K., J. Vandenberghe & D. Pollard, 2003. Palaeotemperature reconstructions of the European permafrost zone during Oxygen Isotope Stage 3 compared with climate model results. Journal of Quaternary Science 18, 453-464
  • van Huissteden, K. & D. Pollard, 2003. Oxygen Isotope Stage 3 fluvial and eolian successions in Europe compared with climate model results. Quaternary Research 59: 223-233.

The Stage 3 Archaeology Book

van Andel, T.H. & W.D. Davies (editors), 2003. Neanderthals and Modern Humans in the European Landscape of the Last Glaciation - Archaeological Results of the Stage 3 Project. The McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research: Cambridge.

The Stage 3 Archaeology Book - Contents:

  1. van Andel, T.H., 2003. Prologue, pp. xvi-xviii.
  2. van Andel, T.H., 2003. The Stage 3 Project – Initiation, Objectives, Approaches. Chapter 1, pp. 1-9.
  3. van Andel, T.H., 2003. Glacial Environments I - The Weichselian Climate in Europe between the End of the OIS-5 Interglacial and the Last Glacial Maximum. Chapter 2, pp.10-20.
  4. van Andel, T.H., W. Davies, B. Weniger & O. Jöris, 2003. Archaeological Dates as Proxies for the Spatial and Temporal Human Presence in Europe - A Discourse on the Method. Chapter 3, pp. 21-30.
  5. van Andel, T.H., W. Davies & B. Weninger, 2003. The Human Presence in Europe during the Last Glacial Period I. Human Migrations and the Changing Climate. Chapter 4, pp. 31-56.
  6. Barron, E., T.H. van Andel & D. Pollard, 2003. Glacial Environments II. Reconstructing the Climate of Europe in the Last Glaciation. Chapter 5, pp. 57-78.
  7. Huntley, B. & J.R.M. Allen, 2003. Glacial Environments III: Palaeo-vegetation Patterns in Last Glacial Europe. Chapter 6, pp. 79-102.
  8. Stewart, J.R., T. van Kolfschoten, A. Markova & R. Musil, 2003. The Mammalian Faunas of Europe during Oxygen Isotope Stage Three. Chapter 7, pp. 103-130.
  9. Davies, S.W. & P. Gollop, 2003. The Human Presence in Europe during the Last Glacial Period II. Climate Tolerance and Climate Preferences of Mid- and Late Glacial Hominids. Chapter 8, pp. 131-146.
  10. Aiello, L.C. & P. Wheeler, 2003. Neanderthal Thermoregulation and the Glacial Climate. Chapter 9, pp. 147-166.
  11. Musil, R., 2003. The Middle and Upper Palaeolithic Game Suite in Central and Southeastern Europe. Chapter 10, pp. 167-190.
  12. Davies, D., P. Valdes, C. Ross & T.H. van Andel, 2003. The Human Presence in Europe during the Last Glacial Period: III. Site Clusters, Regional Climates and Resource Attractions. Chapter 11, pp. 191-220.
  13. Stewart, J.R., T. van Kolfschoten, A. Markova & R. Musil, 2003. Neanderthals as part of the broader Late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions? Chapter 12, pp. 221-232.
  14. Stringer, C., H. Pälike, T.H. van Andel, B. Huntley, P. Valdes & J. R.M. Allen, 2003. Climatic Stress and the Extinction of the Neanderthals. Chapter 13, pp. 233-240.
  15. Lahr, M.M. & R.A. Foley, 2003. Demography, Dispersal and Human Evolution in the Last Glacial Period. Chapter 14, pp. 241-256.
  16. van Andel, T.H. 2003. Epilogue - Humans in an Ice Age: The Stage 3 Project. pp. 257-265.

Winter Temperatures (°C)

Present-day winter temperaturesKey (oC)Warm event [40 ka] winter temperatures

Left: Present-day; Right: Warm event (c. 40,000 yrs BP)

Databases and Climate Simulations

Users of the databases and climate and vegetation simulations intending to use part or all of this material in publications should acknowledge in their publications:

  1. As the source of the material: "The Stage Three Project"
  2. For the climate and vegetation simulations: Eric Barron, David Pollard, Mary Jo Alfano and Brian Huntley
  3. For the archaeological database: William Davies;
  4. For the mammalian fauna database: John Stewart.

The revised and corrected version of the Archaeology database has now been uploaded onto this website, and is available for general use in Excel Format. Please note that it supersedes the previously-available version. Users are strongly advised to read and download the explanatory text before they use the database.


For comments or requests, please contact Dr William Davies


Last updated on 08-Feb-10 11:44