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Part II - Core 1 Geophysics

C1: Geophysics Core Course

Lecture 1 - James Jackson

  • Molnar and Chen (1982), Seismicity and mountain building, in: Mountain building processes (Ed. K. Hsu), Academic Press, London, p41-57

Lecture 2

Lecture 3 

Lecture 4

Lecture 5

Lecture 6

Lecture 7

  • Turcotte, D.L., Schubert G., 2016. Geodynamics. URL (accessed 3.20.16).

Lecture 8

  • Richter, F., McKenzie, D., 1978. Simple plate models of mantle convection.

Lecture 9

Lectures 10-13 - Nicky White

  • *Fowler, C. M. R. The Solid Earth: An Introduction to Global Geophysics. Second Edition ; 16th printing. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1990.
  • Kennett, Brian L. N. Interpretation of Seismograms on Regional and Global Scales. The Seismic Wavefield, B. L. N. Kennett ; Vol. 2. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2002.
  • Kennett, Brian Leslie Norman. The Seismic Wavefield. Cambridge New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
  • Lay, Thorne, and Terry C. Wallace, eds. Modern Global Seismology. Nachdr. International Geophysics Series 58. San Diego, Calif. [u.a.]: Academic Press, 1995.
  • Mooney, Walter D., Gabi Laske, and T. Guy Masters. “CRUST 5.1: A Global Crustal Model at 5° × 5°.” Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 103, no. B1 (January 10, 1998): 727–47.
  • Shearer, Peter M. Introduction to Seismology. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999.
  • Zhao, W., J. Mechie, L. D. Brown, J. Guo, S. Haines, T. Hearn, S. L. Klemperer, et al. “Crustal Structure of Central Tibet as Derived from Project INDEPTH Wide-Angle Seismic Data.” Geophysical Journal International 145, no. 2 (May 2001): 486–98.

Lecture 14 - Nick Rawlinson

  • Lay, Thorne, and Terry C. Wallace, eds. Modern Global Seismology. Nachdr. International Geophysics Series 58. San Diego, Calif. [u.a.]: Academic Press, 1995.
  • Rawlinson, N., J. Hauser, and M. Sambridge. “Seismic Ray Tracing and Wavefront Tracking in Laterally Heterogeneous Media.” Advances in Geophysics 49 (2008): 203–73.
  • Stein, Seth, and Michael Wysession. An Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes, and Earth Structure. Nachdr. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 2003.

Lecture 16

  • Lay, Thorne, and Terry C. Wallace, eds. Modern Global Seismology. Nachdr. International Geophysics Series 58. San Diego, Calif. [u.a.]: Academic Press, 1995.
  • Stein, Seth, and Michael Wysession. An Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes, and Earth Structure. Nachdr. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 2003.

Lecture 17

  • Fichtner, Andreas, Brian L. N. Kennett, Heiner Igel, and Hans-Peter Bunge. "Full Seismic Waveform Tomography for Upper-Mantle Structure in the Australasian Region Using Adjoint Methods." Geophysical Journal International 179, no. 3 (December 2009): 1703–25.
  • Fishwick, S., and N. Rawlinson. "3-D Structure of the Australian Lithosphere from Evolving Seismic Datasets." Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 59, no. 6 (August 2012): 809–26.
  • Hill, Graham J., T. Grant Caldwell, Wiebke Heise, Darren G. Chertkoff, Hugh M. Bibby, Matt K. Burgess, James P. Cull, and Ray A. F. Cas. "Distribution of Melt beneath Mount St Helens and Mount Adams Inferred from Magnetotelluric Data." Nature Geoscience 2, no. 11 (November 2009): 785–89.
  • Kahraman, Metin, David G. Cornwell, David A. Thompson, Sebastian Rost, Gregory A. Houseman, Niyazi Türkelli, Uğur Teoman, Selda Altuncu Poyraz, Murat Utkucu, and Levent Gülen. "Crustal-Scale Shear Zones and Heterogeneous Structure beneath the North Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey, Revealed by a High-Density Seismometer Array." Earth and Planetary Science Letters 430 (November 2015): 129–39.
  • Li, Chang, Robert D. van der Hilst, E. Robert Engdahl, and Scott Burdick. "A New Global Model for P Wave Speed Variations in Earth's Mantle." Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 9, no. 5 (May 2008): n/a-n/a.
  • Pilia, S., N. Rawlinson, N.G. Direen, A.M. Reading, R. Cayley, L. Pryer, P. Arroucau, and M. Duffett. "Linking Mainland Australia and Tasmania Using Ambient Seismic Noise Tomography: Implications for the Tectonic Evolution of the East Gondwana Margin." Gondwana Research 28, no. 3 (October 2015): 1212–27.
  • Rawlinson, N., S. Pozgay, and S. Fishwick. "Seismic Tomography: A Window into Deep Earth." Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 178, no. 3–4 (February 2010): 101–35.


Lecture 18


  • Cohen, Benjamin E., Darren F. Mark, Stewart J. Fallon, and P. Jon Stephenson. “Holocene-Neogene Volcanism in Northeastern Australia: Chronology and Eruption History.” Quaternary Geochronology 39 (April 2017): 79–91.
  • Conrad, Clinton P., Todd A. Bianco, Eugene I. Smith, and Paul Wessel. “Patterns of Intraplate Volcanism Controlled by Asthenospheric Shear.” Nature Geoscience 4, no. 5 (May 2011): 317–21.
  • Davies, D. R., N. Rawlinson, G. Iaffaldano, and I. H. Campbell. “Lithospheric Controls on Magma Composition along Earth’s Longest Continental Hotspot Track.” Nature 525, no. 7570 (September 2015): 511–14.
  • Davies, D. Rhodri, and Nicholas Rawlinson. “On the Origin of Recent Intraplate Volcanism in Australia.” Geology 42, no. 12 (December 2014): 1031–34.
  • Rawlinson, N., D. R. Davies, and S. Pilia. “The Mechanisms Underpinning Cenozoic Intraplate Volcanism in Eastern Australia: Insights from Seismic Tomography and Geodynamic Modeling: INTRAPLATE VOLCANISM IN AUSTRALIA.” Geophysical Research Letters 44, no. 19 (October 16, 2017): 9681–90.

Lecture 19 - John Rudge

  • Bercovici, D. “Mantle Dynamics: An Introduction and Overview.” Treatise on Geophysics 7 (2015): 1–22. This is available at the Betty & Gordon Moore Library
  • Davies, Geoffrey F. Dynamic Earth: Plates, Plumes and Mantle Convection. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
  • Daveis, Geoffrey F. Mantle Convection for Geologists. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.
  • McKenzie, D. P. “The Earth’s Mantle.” Scientific American 249, no. 3 (September 1983): 66–78.
  • McKenzie, D. P., and Frank Richter. “Convection Currents in the Earth’s Mantle.” Scientific American 235, no. 5 (November 1976): 72–89.
  • Rose, Ian R. “Interactive Earth,” n.d.
  • Schubert, Gerald, Donald L. Turcotte, and Peter Olson. Mantle Convection in the Earth and Planets. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Lecture 20

  • Crosby, A. G., and D. McKenzie. “An Analysis of Young Ocean Depth, Gravity and Global Residual Topography.” Geophysical Journal International 178, no. 3 (September 2009): 1198–1219.
  • *Crosby, A. G., D. McKenzie, and J. G. Sclater. “The Relationship between Depth, Age and Gravity in the Oceans.” Geophysical Journal International 166, no. 2 (August 2006): 553–73.
  • Hoggard, M. J., N. White, and D. Al-Attar. “Global Dynamic Topography Observations Reveal Limited Influence of Large-Scale Mantle Flow.” Nature Geoscience 9, no. 6 (June 2016): 456–63.
  • Jones, Stephen M., Bryan Lovell, and Alistair G. Crosby. “Comparison of Modern and Geological Observations of Dynamic Support from Mantle Convection.” Journal of the Geological Society 169, no. 6 (November 2012): 745–58.

Lecture 21

  • *Allègre, Claude J., Albrecht Hofmann, and Keith O’Nions. “The Argon Constraints on Mantle Structure.” Geophysical Research Letters 23, no. 24 (December 1, 1996): 3555–57.
  • Bercovici, David, Gerald Schubert, and Paul J. Tackley. “On the Penetration of the 660 Km Phase Change by Mantle Downflows.” Geophysical Research Letters 20, no. 23 (December 14, 1993): 2599–2602.
  • Ding, Xiao-Yang, and Stephen P. Grand. “Seismic Structure of the Deep Kurile Subduction Zone.” Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 99, no. B12 (December 10, 1994): 23767–86.
  • *Fukao, Yoshio, and Masayuki Obayashi. “Subducted Slabs Stagnant above, Penetrating through, and Trapped below the 660 Km Discontinuity: SUBDUCTED SLABS IN THE TRANSITION ZONE.” Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 118, no. 11 (November 2013): 5920–38.
  • Galer, S.J.G., S.L. Goldstein, and R.K. O’Nions. “Limits on Chemical and Convective Isolation in the Earth’s Interior.” Chemical Geology 75, no. 4 (June 1989): 257–90.
  • Grand, Stephen P. “Mantle Shear Structure beneath the Americas and Surrounding Oceans.” Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 99, no. B6 (June 10, 1994): 11591–621.
  • *Hofmann, A. W. “Mantle Geochemistry: The Message from Oceanic Volcanism.” Nature 385, no. 6613 (January 1997): 219–29.
  • Isacks, Bryan, and Peter Molnar. “Mantle Earthquake Mechanisms and the Sinking of the Lithosphere.” Nature 223, no. 5211 (September 1969): 1121–24.
  • Kennett, B. L. N., S. Widiyantoro, and R. D. van der Hilst. “Joint Seismic Tomography for Bulk Sound and Shear Wave Speed in the Earth’s Mantle.” Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 103, no. B6 (June 10, 1998): 12469–93.
  • Lundgren, Paul, and Domenico Giardini. “Isolated Deep Earthquakes and the Fate of Subduction in the Mantle.” Journal of Geophysical Research 99, no. B8 (1994): 15833.
  • Rudge, John F., John Maclennan, and Andreas Stracke. “The Geochemical Consequences of Mixing Melts from a Heterogeneous Mantle.” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 114 (August 2013): 112–43.
  • White, William M. “Isotopes, DUPAL, LLSVPs, and Anekantavada.” Chemical Geology 419 (December 2015): 10–28.
  • Wit, R. W. L. de, J. Trampert, and R. D. van der Hilst. “Toward Quantifying Uncertainty in Travel Time Tomography Using the Null-Space Shuttle: ROBUSTNESS IN TRAVEL TIME TOMOGRAPHY.” Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 117, no. B3 (March 2012).
  • Zindler, A, and S Hart. “Chemical Geodynamics.” Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 14, no. 1 (May 1986): 493–571.

Lecture 22

  • McKenzie, Dan. “The Relationship between Topography and Gravity on Earth and Venus.” Icarus 112, no. 1 (November 1994): 55–88.
  • McKenzie, Dan, David N. Barnett, and Dah-Ning Yuan. “The Relationship between Martian Gravity and Topography.” Earth and Planetary Science Letters 195, no. 1–2 (January 2002): 1–16.
  • McKenzie, Dan, Peter G. Ford, Fang Liu, and Gordon H. Pettengill. “Pancakelike Domes on Venus.” Journal of Geophysical Research 97, no. E10 (1992): 15967.
  • *Nimmo, F., and D. McKenzie. “Volcanism and Tectonics on Venus.” Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 26, no. 1 (May 1998): 23–51.

Lecture 23 - David Al-Attar

  • Al-Attar, David, John H. Woodhouse, and Arwen Deuss. “Calculation of Normal Mode Spectra in Laterally Heterogeneous Earth Models Using an Iterative Direct Solution Method: Calculating Normal Mode Spectra.” Geophysical Journal International 189, no. 2 (May 2012): 1038–46.
  • Bozdağ, Ebru, Daniel Peter, Matthieu Lefebvre, Dimitri Komatitsch, Jeroen Tromp, Judith Hill, Norbert Podhorszki, and David Pugmire. “Global Adjoint Tomography: First-Generation Model.” Geophysical Journal International 207, no. 3 (December 1, 2016): 1739–66.
  • Deuss, A., Woodhouse, J., 2001. Seismic Observations of Splitting of the Mid-Transition Zone Discontinuity in Earth’s Mantle. Science 294, 354–357. doi:10.1126/science.1063524
  • French, S. W., and B. A. Romanowicz. “Whole-Mantle Radially Anisotropic Shear Velocity Structure from Spectral-Element Waveform Tomography.” Geophysical Journal International 199, no. 3 (December 1, 2014): 1303–27.
  • Fukao, Y., Obayashi, M., 2013. Subducted slabs stagnant above, penetrating through, and trapped below the 660 km discontinuity. J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth 118, 2013JB010466. doi:10.1002/2013JB010466.
  • Liu, Qinya, and Jeroen Tromp. “Finite-Frequency Sensitivity Kernels for Global Seismic Wave Propagation Based upon Adjoint Methods.” Geophysical Journal International 174, no. 1 (July 2008): 265–86.
  • Ritsema, J. “Complex Shear Wave Velocity Structure Imaged Beneath Africa and Iceland.” Science 286, no. 5446 (December 3, 1999): 1925–28.
  • Woodhouse, J., and D. Giardini. “Inversion for the Splitting Function of Isolated Low Order Normal Mode Multiplets.” EOS 66 (1985).
  • Woodhouse, John H., and Adam M. Dziewonski. “Mapping the Upper Mantle: Three-Dimensional Modeling of Earth Structure by Inversion of Seismic Waveforms.” Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 89, no. B7 (July 10, 1984): 5953–86.

Lecture 24

  • Austermann, Jacqueline, Jerry X. Mitrovica, Peter Huybers, and Alessio Rovere. “Detection of a Dynamic Topography Signal in Last Interglacial Sea-Level Records.” Science Advances 3, no. 7 (July 2017): e1700457.
  • Crawford, Ophelia, David Al-Attar, Jeroen Tromp, Jerry X Mitrovica, Jacqueline Austermann, and Harriet C P Lau. “Quantifying the Sensitivity of Post-Glacial Sea Level Change to Laterally Varying Viscosity.” Geophysical Journal International 214, no. 2 (August 1, 2018): 1324–63.
  • Hoggard, M. J., N. White, and D. Al-Attar. “Global Dynamic Topography Observations Reveal Limited Influence of Large-Scale Mantle Flow.” Nature Geoscience 9, no. 6 (June 2016): 456–63.
  • Zhu, H., Bozdag, E., Peter, D., Tromp, J., 2012. Structure of the European upper mantle revealed by adjoint tomography. Nature Geosci 5, 493–498. doi:10.1038/ngeo1501