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Part II - Core 4 Climate

This is the previosu reading list & will be updated as soon as possible

Part II Reading List - Core 4: Climate

Reading List for C4 by Subject - Lectures 1-6 by David Hodell

Deep Sea Sediments

General references:

Lisitzin, A. P. (1996), Oceanic Sedimentation: Lithology and Geochemistry, 400 pp., AGU, Washington, D. C., there is no copy of this in the library, available on line only doi:10.1029/SP044.

Kennett, J.P. (1982). Marine Geology, Chapters 13-16, pp. 396-573, Prentice Hall - in the short loan collection in the library office

Specific papers:

Francois, R., M. Frank, M. M. Rutgers van der Loeff, and M. P. Bacon (2004), 230Th normalization: An essential tool for interpreting sedimentary fluxes during the late Quaternary, Paleoceanography, 19, PA1018, doi:10.1029/2003PA000939.

Henderson, G.M., and Anderson, R.F., The U-series Toolbox for Paleoceanography (2003), Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry January 52 ( 1), 493-531.

Kristensen, E., Penha-Lopes, G., Delefosse, M., Valdemarsen, T., Quintana, C.O., and Banta, G.T., 2012. What is bioturbation? The need for a precise definition for fauna in aquatic sciences Inter-Research - Marine Ecology Progress Series v446 p285-302 

McCave, I.N., (2002), A poisoned chalice? Science 298, 1186-1187.

Teal, L.R., Bulling, M.T., Parker, E.R. and Solan, M., (2008), Global patterns of bioturbation intensity and mixed depth of marine soft sediments. Aquatic Biology, 2, 207–218.


Methods of temperature and ice volume reconstruction in marine sediments


Oritz, J. and Mix, A. (1997). Comparison of Imbrie-Kipp transfer function and modern analog temperature estimates using sediment trap and core top foraminiferal faunas. Paleoceanography 12(2): 175-190.

Oxygen isotopes

Rohling, E.J. (2006) Oxygen isotope composition of seawater. In, Elias, S.A. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science (Vol. 3)., Elsevier, 1748-1756.


Lea, D.W. (2003) Elemental and Isotopic Proxies of Marine Temperatures, (this link is to the 2014 edition) pp. 365-390. In The Oceans and Marine Geochemistry (ed. H. Elderfield, ed.) Vol. 6 Treatise on Geochemistry (eds H.D. Holland and K.K. Tuerekian), Elsevier-Pergamon, Oxford.

Rosenthal, Y., B.K. Linsley, Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca Paleothermometery from Calcareous Marine Fossils, chapter in the Encyclopedia of Quaternary Sciences, Elsevier Ltd., 2006.

Clumped isotopes

Eiler, J.M., 2011. Paleoclimate reconstruction using carbonate clumped isotope thermometry. Quaternary Science Reviews, 30: 3575–3588.


Herbert, T.D., 2003. Alkenone paleotemperature determinations. In: Treatise on Geochemistry, Vol. 6 (December 2003) , p. 391-432.


Schouten, S., Hopmans, E.C., Schefus, E., and Sinninghe Damste, 2002, Distributional variation in marine crenarchaeotal membrane lipids: a new tool for reconstructing ancient sea water temperatures?: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 204: 265-274.


Milankovitch Theory of the Ice Ages

General reading:
Imbrie, J. and Imbrie, K.P., 1979. Ice Ages: Solving the Mystery. Harvard University Press, ISBN: 0-674-44075-7

Review paper:
Berger, A., Milankovitch theory and climate, Reviews in Geophysics, 26, 624-657, 1988.

Classic papers:
Hays, J.D., Imbrie, J., and Shackleton, N.J., 1976. Variations in the Earth's Orbit: Pacemaker of the Ice Ages, Science, 194,  1121-1132.
Imbrie, J., and J. Z. Imbrie, 1980. Modeling the climatic response to orbital variations, Science, 207, 943–953.
Paillard, D. (2001), Glacial cycles: Toward a new paradigm, Rev. Geophys., 39, 325 –346.

For an alternative view:
Wunsch, C., 2004, Quantitative estimate of the Milankovitch-forced contribution to observed Quaternary climate change Quaternary Science Reviews 23, 1001–1012.

Middle Pleistocene Transition

Clark, P. U., D. Archer, D. Pollard, J. D. Blum, J. A. Rial, V. Brovkin, A. C Mix, N. G. Pisias, and M. Roy (2006), The middle Pleistocene transition: characteristics, mechanisms, and implications for long-term changes in atmospheric CO2, Quat. Sci. Rev, 25, 3150-3184.
Elderfield, H., Ferretti, P., Greaves, M., Crowhurst, S., McCave, I.N., Hodell, D.A., and Piotrowski, A.M., 2012. Evolution of ocean temperature and ice volume through the Mid-Pleistocene Climate Transition. Science 337, 704-709.
Huybers, 2006, Early Pleistocene glacial cycles and the integrated summer insolation forcing, Science, 313,  pp. 508-511.
Raymo, M.E. and K.H. Nisancioglu, 2003, The 41 Kyr world: Milankovitch’s other unsolved mystery, Paleoceanography, v. 18, 10.1029/2002PA000791.
Raymo, M. E. and P. Huybers, 2008, Unlocking the mysteries of the Ice Ages, Nature, v. 451, p. 284-285.
Raymo, M. E., L. Lisiecki, and K. Nisancioglu, 2006, Plio-Pleistocene ice volume, Antarctic climate, and the global ?18O record, Science, v. 313, p. 492, doi: 10.1126/science.1123296.


Bailey, R.J., 2009. Cyclostratigraphic reasoning and orbital time calibration Terra Nova, 21, 340–351.

Hilgen, F.J., 1991. Astronomical calibration of Gauss to Matuyama sapropels in the Mediterranean and implication for the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 104: 226-244.

Krijgsman, W., Hilgen, F.J., Raffi, I., Sierro, F.J., Wilsonk, D.S., 1999. Chronology, causes and progression of the Messinian salinity crisis. Nature  400: 625-655.

Tuenter, E., Weber, S.L., Hilgen, F.J., Lourens, L.J., 2003. The response of the African summer monsoon to remote and local forcing due to precession and obliquity Global and Planetary Change 36: 219–235.

Weedon, G.P., 2003. Chapter 1 in Time-series analysis and cyclostratigraphy: examining stratigraphic records of environmental cycles, Cambridge University Press, 259 pp.


Lecture 7. (Thu 2nd Feb) Deep Ocean Circulation and Climate (Piotrowski)
What role does deep ocean circulation play in affecting global and regional climate? We will examine the physics of ocean circulation and then review the major studies which suggested that the ocean plays an important role in the climate system.

Lecture 8. (Mon 6th Feb) Nutrient and Water Mass Chemistry Proxies (d13C, Cd/Ca, Nd) (Piotrowski)

How can we reconstruct the past changes in ocean overturning and carbon storage in the deep ocean? We will learn about the geochemical tools which are used to reconstruct past changes in the source and pathway of deep water masses.

Lecture 9. (Wed 8th Feb) Dynamic Circulation Proxies (Pa/Th and 14C and sortable silt) (Piotrowski)
We will survey about the geochemical and sedimentological techniques which are used for reconstructing the overturning rate and flow speeds of deep water masses.

Lecture 10. (Thu 9th Feb) Glacial-Interglacial and Millennial-scale Changes in Ocean Circulation
And overview of recently published records of ocean circulation changes during the most recent glacial-interglacial cycle, as well as during more rapid climate changes including D-O cycles and Heinrich Events. How do these relate these to the outputs of global climate models?

Lecture 11. (Mon 13th Feb) Equatorial Oceanic Gateways and Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (Piotrowski)


Lecture  by Eric Wolff

Lecture 13: Ice sheets and ice cores

Lecture 14: Orbital and millennial events in ice cores

"Lecture 15" (Guest seminar afternoon)

Lecture 16: The cryosphere and ice dynamics

Lecture 23: Lessons from the past and options for the future