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Option 7 - Volcanology

This is a list of key papers for the 2018-19 volcanology course (lectured by Andy Woods and Marie Edmonds).

Andy Woods (processes)

  • Barmin, A., O. Melnik, and R.S.J. Sparks. “Periodic Behavior in Lava Dome Eruptions.” Earth and Planetary Science Letters 199, no. 1–2 (May 2002): 173–84.
  • Branney, Michael J., and Peter Kokelaar. Pyroclastic Density Currents and the Sedimentation of Ignimbrites. Geological Society of London, 2002.
  • Burgisser, Alain, and George W. Bergantz. “A Rapid Mechanism to Remobilize and Homogenize Highly Crystalline Magma Bodies.” Nature 471, no. 7337 (March 2011): 212–15.
  • Bursik, Marcus I., and Andrew W. Woods. “The Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Large Ash Flows.” Bulletin of Volcanology 58, no. 2–3 (September 1996): 175–93.
  • Druitt, T. H., E. S. Calder, P. D. Cole, R. P. Hoblitt, S. C. Loughlin, G. E. Norton, L. J. Ritchie, R. S. J. Sparks, and B. Voight. “Small-Volume, Highly Mobile Pyroclastic Flows Formed by Rapid Sedimentation from Pyroclastic Surges at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat: An Important Volcanic Hazard.” Geological Society, London, Memoirs 21, no. 1 (2002): 263–79.
  • Edmonds, M., C. Oppenheimer, D.M. Pyle, R.A. Herd, and G. Thompson. “SO2 Emissions from Soufrière Hills Volcano and Their Relationship to Conduit Permeability, Hydrothermal Interaction and Degassing Regime.” Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 124, no. 1–2 (May 2003): 23–43.
  • Vidal, Céline M., Nicole Métrich, Jean-Christophe Komorowski, Indyo Pratomo, Agnès Michel, Nugraha Kartadinata, Vincent Robert, and Franck Lavigne. “The 1257 Samalas Eruption (Lombok, Indonesia): The Single Greatest Stratospheric Gas Release of the Common Era.” Scientific Reports 6 (October 10, 2016): 34868.
  • Foroozan, Roozbeh, Derek Elsworth, Barry Voight, and Glen S. Mattioli. “Magmatic-Metering Controls the Stopping and Restarting of Eruptions: STOPPING AND RESTARTING OF ERUPTIONS.” Geophysical Research Letters 38, no. 5 (March 16, 2011)
  • Hoover, S.R, K.V Cashman, and M Manga. “The Yield Strength of Subliquidus Basalts — Experimental Results.” Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 107, no. 1–3 (June 2001): 1–18.
  • Huppert, H. E., and R. S. J. Sparks. “The Generation of Granitic Magmas by Intrusion of Basalt into Continental Crust.” Journal of Petrology 29, no. 3 (June 1, 1988): 599–624.
  • Huppert, Herbert E., R. Stephen J. Sparks, and J. Stewart Turner. “Effects of Volatiles on Mixing in Calc-Alkaline Magma Systems.” Nature 297, no. 5867 (June 1, 1982): 554–57.
  • Huppert, Herbert E., and Andrew W. Woods. “The Role of Volatiles in Magma Chamber Dynamics.” Nature 420, no. 6915 (December 2002): 493–95.
  • Lavigne, F., J.-P. Degeai, J.-C. Komorowski, S. Guillet, V. Robert, P. Lahitte, C. Oppenheimer, et al. “Source of the Great A.D. 1257 Mystery Eruption Unveiled, Samalas Volcano, Rinjani Volcanic Complex, Indonesia.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110, no. 42 (October 15, 2013): 16742–47.
  • Melnik, O., and R. S. J. Sparks. “Nonlinear Dynamics of Lava Dome Extrusion.” Nature 402, no. 6757 (November 1, 1999): 37–41.
  • Peters, Nial, Clive Oppenheimer, Drea Rae Killingsworth, Jed Frechette, and Philip Kyle. “Correlation of Cycles in Lava Lake Motion and Degassing at Erebus Volcano, Antarctica.” Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 15, no. 8 (August 2014): 3244–57.
  • Phillips, Jeremy C., and Andrew W. Woods. “Suppression of Large-Scale Magma Mixing by Melt–volatile Separation.” Earth and Planetary Science Letters 204, no. 1–2 (November 2002): 47–60.
  • Sher, Diana, and Andrew W. Woods. “Experiments on Mixing in Pyroclastic Density Currents Generated from Short-Lived Volcanic Explosions.” Earth and Planetary Science Letters 467 (June 2017): 138–48.
  • Stasiuk, Mark V., Claude Jaupart, and R. Stephen J. Sparks. “On the Variations of Flow Rate in Non-Explosive Lava Eruptions.” Earth and Planetary Science Letters 114, no. 4 (February 1993): 505–16.
  • Tait, Stephen, Claude Jaupart, and Sylvie Vergniolle. “Pressure, Gas Content and Eruption Periodicity of a Shallow, Crystallising Magma Chamber.” Earth and Planetary Science Letters 92, no. 1 (February 1989): 107–23.
  • Tarasewicz, Jon, Robert S. White, Andrew W. Woods, Bryndís Brandsdóttir, and Magnús T. Gudmundsson. “Magma Mobilization by Downward-Propagating Decompression of the Eyjafjallajökull Volcanic Plumbing System: MAGMA MOBILIZATION BY DECOMPRESSION.” Geophysical Research Letters 39, no. 19 (October 16, 2012): n/a-n/a.
  • Vidal, Céline M., Nicole Métrich, Jean-Christophe Komorowski, Indyo Pratomo, Agnès Michel, Nugraha Kartadinata, Vincent Robert, and Franck Lavigne. “The 1257 Samalas Eruption (Lombok, Indonesia): The Single Greatest Stratospheric Gas Release of the Common Era.” Scientific Reports 6 (October 10, 2016): 34868.
  • Woodhouse, M. J., A. J. Hogg, J. C. Phillips, and R. S. J. Sparks. “Interaction between Volcanic Plumes and Wind during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull Eruption, Iceland: VOLCANIC PLUMES AND WIND.” Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 118, no. 1 (January 2013): 92–109.
  • Woods, A. W. “The Fluid Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Eruption Columns.” Bulletin of Volcanology 50, no. 3 (June 1988): 169–93.
  • Woods, Andrew W. “The Dynamics of Explosive Volcanic Eruptions.” Reviews of Geophysics 33, no. 4 (1995): 495.
  • Woods, Andrew W., and Alexander Cowan. “Magma Mixing Triggered during Volcanic Eruptions.” Earth and Planetary Science Letters 288, no. 1–2 (October 30, 2009): 132–37.
  • Woods, Andy. “Volcanic Flows.” In Buoyancy-Driven Flows, edited by Eric Chassignet, Claudia Cenedese, and Jacques Verron, 338–71. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.


Marie Edmonds (examples)


  • Brooks, B, J Foster, M Bevis, L Frazer, C Wolfe, and M Behn. 2006. 'Periodic Slow Earthquakes on the Flank of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaiʻi'. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 246 (3–4): 207–16.
  • Cashman, Katharine V., Carl Thornber, and James P. Kauahikaua. 1999. 'Cooling and Crystallization of Lava in Open Channels, and the Transition of Pāhoehoe Lava to 'A'ā'. Bulletin of Volcanology 61 (5): 306–23.
  • Courtillot, Vincent, Anne Davaille, Jean Besse, and Joann Stock. 2003. 'Three Distinct Types of Hotspots in the Earth's Mantle'. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 205 (3–4): 295–308.
  • Edmonds, M., I.R. Sides, D.A. Swanson, C. Werner, R.S. Martin, T.A. Mather, R.A. Herd, et al. 2013. 'Magma Storage, Transport and Degassing during the 2008–10 Summit Eruption at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i'. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 123 (December): 284–301.
  • Fiske, R. S., and E. D. Jackson. 1972. 'Orientation and Growth of Hawaiian Volcanic Rifts: The Effect of Regional Structure and Gravitational Stresses'. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences 329 (1578): 299–326.
  • Grigg, Richard W., and Anthony T. Jones. 1997. 'Uplift Caused by Lithospheric Flexure in the Hawaiian Archipelago as Revealed by Elevated Coral Deposits'. Marine Geology 141 (1–4): 11–25.
  • Hauri, Erik H. 1996. 'Major-Element Variability in the Hawaiian Mantle Plume'. Nature 382 (6590): 415–19.
  • Morgan, Julia K., Gregory F. Moore, and David A. Clague. 2003. 'Slope Failure and Volcanic Spreading along the Submarine South Flank of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii'. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 108 (B9).
  • Park, Jaewoo, Julia K. Morgan, Colin A. Zelt, and Paul G. Okubo. 2009. 'Volcano-Tectonic Implications of 3-D Velocity Structures Derived from Joint Active and Passive Source Tomography of the Island of Hawaii'. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 114 (B9).
  • Pietruszka, Aaron J, and Michael O Garcia. 1999. 'A Rapid Fluctuation in the Mantle Source and Melting History of Kilauea Volcano Inferred from the Geochemistry of Its Historical Summit Lavas (1790–1982)' 40 (8): 22.
  • Poland, Michael P., Asta Miklius, A. Jeff Sutton, and Carl R. Thornber. 2012. 'A Mantle-Driven Surge in Magma Supply to Kīlauea Volcano during 2003–2007'. Nature Geoscience 5 (March): 295.
  • Ribe, N.M, and U.R Christensen. 1999. 'The Dynamical Origin of Hawaiian Volcanism'. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 171 (4): 517–31.
  • Sides, I., M. Edmonds, J. Maclennan, B.F. Houghton, D.A. Swanson, and M.J. Steele-MacInnis. 2014. 'Magma Mixing and High Fountaining during the 1959 Kīlauea Iki Eruption, Hawai'i'. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 400 (August): 102–12.
  • Swanson, Donald A. 2008. 'Hawaiian Oral Tradition Describes 400 Years of Volcanic Activity at Kīlauea'. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 176 (3): 427–31.
  • Swanson, Donald A., and Robert L. Christiansen. 1973. 'Tragic Base Surge in 1790 at Kilauea Volcano'. Geology 1 (2): 83.<83:TBSIAK>2.0.CO;2.
  • Watson, S., and D. P. McKenzie. 1991. 'Melt Generation by Plumes: A Study of Hawaiian Volcanism'. Journal of Petrology 32 (3): 501–37.
  • Watts, A. B. 1978. 'An Analysis of Isostasy in the World's Oceans 1. Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Chain'. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 83 (B12): 5989–6004.
  • Weis, Dominique, Michael O. Garcia, J. Michael Rhodes, Mark Jellinek, and James S. Scoates. 2011. 'Role of the Deep Mantle in Generating the Compositional Asymmetry of the Hawaiian Mantle Plume'. Nature Geoscience 4 (12): 831–38.
  • Wolfe, C. J., S. C. Solomon, G. Laske, J. A. Collins, R. S. Detrick, J. A. Orcutt, D. Bercovici, and E. H. Hauri. 2009. 'Mantle Shear-Wave Velocity Structure Beneath the Hawaiian Hot Spot'. Science 326 (5958): 1388–90.
  • Wright, Thomas L., and Fred W. Klein. 2006. 'Deep Magma Transport at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii'. Lithos 87 (1–2): 50–79.


Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat

  • Calder, E. S., P. D. Cole, W. B. Dade, T. H. Druitt, R. P. Hoblitt, H. E. Huppert, L. Ritchie, R. S. J. Sparks, and S. R. Young. 1999. 'Mobility of Pyroclastic Flows and Surges at the Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat'. Geophysical Research Letters 26 (5): 537–40.
  • Caricchi, L, L Burlini, P Ulmer, T Gerya, M Vassalli, and P Papale. 2007. 'Non-Newtonian Rheology of Crystal-Bearing Magmas and Implications for Magma Ascent Dynamics'. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 264 (3–4): 402–19.
  • Cashman, Katharine V., and Marie Edmonds. 2019. 'Mafic Glass Compositions: A Record of Magma Storage Conditions, Mixing and Ascent'. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 377 (2139): 20180004.
  • Cashman, Katharine V., and R. Stephen J. Sparks. 2013. 'How Volcanoes Work: A 25 Year Perspective'. GSA Bulletin 125 (5–6): 664–90.
  • Christopher, Thomas, Marie Edmonds, Madeleine C. S. Humphreys, and Richard A. Herd. 2010. 'Volcanic Gas Emissions from Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat 1995-2009, with Implications for Mafic Magma Supply and Degassing: VOLCANIC GASES FROM SOUFRIÈRE HILLS'. Geophysical Research Letters 37 (19)
  • Cooper, Kari M., and Adam J. R. Kent. 2014. 'Rapid Remobilization of Magmatic Crystals Kept in Cold Storage'. Nature 506 (7489): 480–83.
  • Edmonds, Marie, and Richard A Herd. 2005. 'Inland-Directed Base Surge Generated by the Explosive Interaction of Pyroclastic Flows and Seawater at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat'. Geology 33 (4): 245.
  • Giachetti, T., T.H. Druitt, A. Burgisser, L. Arbaret, and C. Galven. 2010. 'Bubble Nucleation, Growth and Coalescence during the 1997 Vulcanian Explosions of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat'. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 193 (3–4): 215–31.
  • Green, David N., and Jürgen Neuberg. 2006. 'Waveform Classification of Volcanic Low-Frequency Earthquake Swarms and Its Implication at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat'. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 153 (1–2): 51–63.
  • Horwell, Claire J., Ben J. Williamson, Edward W. Llewellin, David E. Damby, and Jennifer S. Le Blond. 2013. 'The Nature and Formation of Cristobalite at the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat: Implications for the Petrology and Stability of Silicic Lava Domes'. Bulletin of Volcanology 75 (3).
  • Humphreys, Madeleine C. S., Thomas Christopher, and Vicky Hards. 2009. 'Microlite Transfer by Disaggregation of Mafic Inclusions Following Magma Mixing at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat'. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 157 (5): 609–24.
  • Le Friant, A., E.J. Lock, M.B. Hart, G. Boudon, R.S.J. Sparks, M.J. Leng, C.W. Smart, J.C. Komorowski, C. Deplus, and J.K. Fisher. 2008. 'Late Pleistocene Tephrochronology of Marine Sediments Adjacent to Montserrat, Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc'. Journal of the Geological Society 165 (1): 279–89.
  • Lejeune, Anne-Marie, and Pascal Richet. 1995. 'Rheology of Crystal-Bearing Silicate Melts: An Experimental Study at High Viscosities'. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 100 (B3): 4215–29.
  • Plail, Melissa, Marie Edmonds, Andrew W. Woods, Jenni Barclay, Madeleine C. S. Humphreys, Richard A. Herd, and Thomas Christopher. 2018. 'Mafic Enclaves Record Syn-Eruptive Basalt Intrusion and Mixing'. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 484 (February): 30–40.
  • Sparks, R. S. J., and S. R. Young. 2002. 'The Eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat (1995–1999): Overview of Scientific Results'. In The Eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat from 1995 to 1999, edited by T. H. Druitt and B. P. Kokelaar, 21:0. Geological Society of London.
  • Trofimovs, Jessica, R. Stephen John Sparks, and Peter J. Talling. 2008. 'Anatomy of a Submarine Pyroclastic Flow and Associated Turbidity Current: July 2003 Dome Collapse, Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, West Indies'. Sedimentology 55 (3): 617–34.
  • Wadge, G., and W. P. Aspinall. 2014. 'Chapter 24 A Review of Volcanic Hazard and Risk-Assessment Praxis at the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat from 1997 to 2011'. Geological Society, London, Memoirs 39 (1): 439–56.
  • Watts, R. B., R. A. Herd, R. S. J. Sparks, and S. R. Young. 2002. 'Growth Patterns and Emplacement of the Andesitic Lava Dome at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat'. Geological Society, London, Memoirs 21 (1): 115–52.
  • Zimmer, Mindy M., Terry Plank, Erik H. Hauri, Gene M. Yogodzinski, Peter Stelling, Jessica Larsen, Brad Singer, Brian Jicha, Charles Mandeville, and Christopher J. Nye. 2010. 'The Role of Water in Generating the Calc-Alkaline Trend: New Volatile Data for Aleutian Magmas and a New Tholeiitic Index'. Journal of Petrology 51 (12): 2411–44.


Mount St Helens

  • Cashman, Katharine V., and Joseph E. Taggart. 1983. 'Petrologic Monitoring of 1981 and 1982 Eruptive Products from Mount St. Helens'. Science 221: 1385–87.
  • Claiborne, Lily L., Calvin F. Miller, Daniel M. Flanagan, Michael A. Clynne, and Joseph L. Wooden. 2010. 'Zircon Reveals Protracted Magma Storage and Recycling beneath Mount St. Helens'. Geology 38 (11): 1011–14.
  • Druitt, T H. 1992. 'Emplacement of the 18 May 1980 Lateral Blast Deposit ENE of Mount St. Helens, Washington'. Bulletin of Volcanology 54 (7): 554–72.
  • Iverson, Richard M., Daniel Dzurisin, Cynthia A. Gardner, Terrence M. Gerlach, Richard G. LaHusen, Michael Lisowski, Jon J. Major, et al. 2006. 'Dynamics of Seismogenic Volcanic Extrusion at Mount St Helens in 2004–05'. Nature 444 (7118): 439–43.
  • Salzer, Jacqueline T., Weston A. Thelen, Mike R. James, Thomas R. Walter, Seth Moran, and Roger Denlinger. 2016. 'Volcano Dome Dynamics at Mount St. Helens: Deformation and Intermittent Subsidence Monitored by Seismicity and Camera Imagery Pixel Offsets'. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 121 (11): 7882–7902.
  • Sparks, R. S. J. 1986. 'The Dimensions and Dynamics of Volcanic Eruption Columns'. Bulletin of Volcanology 48 (1): 3–15.
  • Sparks, R. S. J., J. G. Moore, and C. J. Rice. 1986. 'The Initial Giant Umbrella Cloud of the May 18th, 1980, Explosive Eruption of Mount St. Helens - ScienceDirect'.
  • Swanson, D.A., T.J. Casadevall, D. Dzurisin, R.T. Holcomb, C.G. Newhall, S.D. Malone, and C.S. Weaver. 1985. 'Forecasts and Predictions of Eruptive Activity at Mount St. Helens, USA: 1975–1984'. Journal of Geodynamics 3 (3–4): 397–423.
  • Waite, Gregory P., Bernard A. Chouet, and Phillip B. Dawson. 2008. 'Eruption Dynamics at Mount St. Helens Imaged from Broadband Seismic Waveforms: Interaction of the Shallow Magmatic and Hydrothermal Systems'. Journal of Geophysical Research 113 (B2).



  • Reynolds, P., R. J. Brown, T. Thordarson, and E. W. Llewellin. 2016. 'The Architecture and Shallow Conduits of Laki-Type Pyroclastic Cones: Insights into a Basaltic Fissure Eruption'. Bulletin of Volcanology 78 (5).
  • Schmidt, A., B. Ostro, K. S. Carslaw, M. Wilson, T. Thordarson, G. W. Mann, and A. J. Simmons. 2011. 'Excess Mortality in Europe Following a Future Laki-Style Icelandic Eruption'. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108 (38): 15710–15.
  • Sigurdsson, Haraldur. 1982. 'Volcanic Pollution and Climate: The 1783 Laki Eruption'. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 63 (32): 601.
  • Thordarson, Thorvaldur, and S. Self. 2003. 'Atmospheric and Environmental Effects of the 1783–1784 Laki Eruption: A Review and Reassessment'. Journal of Geophysical Research 108 (D1).


Cordón Caulle

  • Bonadonna, Costanza, Raffaello Cioni, Marco Pistolesi, Manuela Elissondo, and Valerie Baumann. 2015. 'Sedimentation of Long-Lasting Wind-Affected Volcanic Plumes: The Example of the 2011 Rhyolitic Cordón Caulle Eruption, Chile'. Bulletin of Volcanology 77 (2).
  • Castro, Jonathan M., Benoit Cordonnier, C. Ian Schipper, Hugh Tuffen, Tobias S. Baumann, and Yves Feisel. 2016. 'Rapid Laccolith Intrusion Driven by Explosive Volcanic Eruption'. Nature Communications 7 (November): 13585.
  • Farquharson, J.I., M.R. James, and H. Tuffen. 2015. 'Examining Rhyolite Lava Flow Dynamics through Photo-Based 3D Reconstructions of the 2011–2012 Lava Flowfield at Cordón-Caulle, Chile'. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 304 (October): 336–48.
  • Magnall, Nathan, Mike R. James, Hugh Tuffen, Charlotte Vye-Brown, C. Ian Schipper, Jonathan M. Castro, and Ashley Gerard Davies. 2019. 'The Origin and Evolution of Breakouts in a Cooling-Limited Rhyolite Lava Flow'. GSA Bulletin 131 (1–2): 137–54.


Long Valley

  • Farrar, C. D., M. L. Sorey, W. C. Evans, J. F. Howle, B. D. Kerr, B. M. Kennedy, C.-Y. King, and J. R. Southon. 1995. 'Forest-Killing Diffuse CO2 Emission at Mammoth Mountain as a Sign of Magmatic Unrest'. Nature 376 (6542): 675–78.
  • Hildreth, Wes. 2004. 'Volcanological Perspectives on Long Valley, Mammoth Mountain, and Mono Craters: Several Contiguous but Discrete Systems'. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 136 (3–4): 169–98.
  • Hildreth, Wes, and Colin J. N. Wilson. 2007. 'Compositional Zoning of the Bishop Tuff'. Journal of Petrology 48 (5): 951–99.
  • Hill, David P. 2006. 'Unrest in Long Valley Caldera, California, 1978–2004'. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 269 (1): 1.2-24.



  • Cadoux, Anita, Bruno Scaillet, Slimane Bekki, Clive Oppenheimer, and Timothy H. Druitt. 2015. 'Stratospheric Ozone Destruction by the Bronze-Age Minoan Eruption (Santorini Volcano, Greece)'. Scientific Reports 5 (July): 12243.
  • Druitt, T. H., F. Costa, E. Deloule, M. Dungan, and B. Scaillet. 2012. 'Decadal to Monthly Timescales of Magma Transfer and Reservoir Growth at a Caldera Volcano'. Nature 482 (7383): 77–80.
  • Druitt, T. H., R. A. Mellors, D. M. Pyle, and R. S. J. Sparks. 1989. 'Explosive Volcanism on Santorini, Greece'. Geological Magazine 126 (2): 95–126.
  • Druitt, Th, and V Francaviglia. 1992. 'Caldera Formation on Santorini and the Physiography of the Islands in the Late Bronze Age'. Bulletin of Volcanology 54 (6): 484–93.