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Department of Earth Sciences

Climate Change and Earth-Ocean-Atmosphere Systems


09/2019-      Assistant Professor, University of Cambridge, UK.

01-08/2019   Senior Lecturer, Northumbria University, UK.

2015–2018    Research Associate, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, UK.

Horizon 2020 Marie Sklowdowka-Curie Individual Fellowship:"Sea ice across Dansgaard-Oeschger events in Greenland”. Mentor: Prof. Eric Wolff

06-09/2015   Ice Core Laboratory Analyst, British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK.

2011-2015    Postdoctoral Scholar, College of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, USA.     Supervisor: Prof. Edward J. Brook

2012              Ph.D. Geology, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.

Thesis title: Insights into Late Holocene climate of the Ross Sea Region, Antarctica, from high resolution ice core chemistry. Supervisors:  Dr. Nancy A.N. Bertler and Prof. Joel A. Baker

2007              MGeol (Hons) Environmental Geology (International) (1st class), University of Leeds, UK



ice cores; abrupt climate change; methane biogeochemistry; ice core chemistry; sea ice reconstructions; continuous ice core gas measurement; chemical transport modelling


Key publications: 

Google Scholar profile

Xavier Crosta, Karen E. Kohfeld, Helen C. Bostock, Matthew Chadwick, Alice Du Vivier, Oliver Esper, Johan Etourneau, Jacob Jones, Amy Leventer, Juliane Müller, Rachael H. Rhodes, Claire S. Allen, et al., Antarctic sea ice over the past 130,000 years, Part 1: What the proxy records tell us. Climate of the Past Discussions,, 2022

>>>>>>>>> Peer Reviewed <<<<<<<<<<<<

Faïn, X., Rhodes, R.H., Philip, P., Petrenko, V.V., Fourteau, K., Chellman, N., Crosier, E., McConnell, J.R., Brook, E.J., Blunier, T., Legrand, M., Chappellaz, J., 2022. Northern Hemisphere atmospheric history of carbon monoxide since preindustrial times reconstructed from multiple Greenland ice cores. Clim. Past. 18, 631–647,


Brovkin, V., Brook, E., Williams, J.W., Bathiany, S., Lenton, T.M., Barton, M., DeConto, R.M., Donges, J.F., Ganopolski, A., McManus, J., Praetorius, S., de Vernal, A., Abe-Ouchi, A., Cheng, H., Claussen, M., Crucifix, M., Gallopín, G., Iglesias, V., Kaufman, D.S., Kleinen, T., Lambert, F., van der Leeuw, S., Liddy, H., Loutre, M.-F., McGee, D., Rehfeld, K., Rhodes, R., Seddon, A.W.R., Trauth, M.H., Vanderveken, L., Yu, Z., 2021. Past abrupt changes, tipping points and cascading impacts in the Earth system. Nat. Geosci. 14, 550–558.

Criscitiello, A.S., Geldsetzer, T., Rhodes, R.H., Arienzo, M., McConnell, J., Chellman, N., Osman, M.B., Yackel, J.J., Marshall, S., 2021. Marine Aerosol Records of Arctic Sea-Ice and Polynya Variability From New Ellesmere and Devon Island Firn Cores, Nunavut, Canada. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 126, e2021JC017205.


Margari, V., L.C. Skinner, L. Menviel, E. Capron, R. H. Rhodes, M. Vautravers, M.M. Ezat, B. Martrat, J. Grimalt, D.A. Hodell, P.C. Tzedakis, 2020. Fast and slow millennial-scale climate changes during Marine Isotope Stage 3. Communications Earth and Environment, 1(1) 1-9. doi:10.1038/s43247-020-0006-x

Dyonisius, M.N., Petrenko, V.V., Smith, A.M., Hua, Q., Yang, B., Schmitt, J., Beck, J., Seth, B., Bock, M., Hmiel, B., Vimont, I., Menking, J.A., Shackleton, S.A., Baggenstos, D., Bauska, T.K., Rhodes, R.H., Sperlich, P., Beaudette, R., Harth, C., Kalk, M., Brook, E.J., Fischer, H., Severinghaus, J.P., Weiss, R.F., 2020. Old carbon reservoirs were not important in the deglacial methane budget. Science 367, 907–910.

Shackleton, S., Baggenstos, D., Menking, J.A., Dyonisius, M.N., Bereiter, B., Bauska, T.K., Rhodes, R.H., Brook, E.J., Petrenko, V.V., McConnell, J.R., Kellerhals, T., Häberli, M., Schmitt, J., Fischer, H., Severinghaus, J.P., 2020. Global ocean heat content in the Last Interglacial. Nature Geoscience 13, 77–81.


Menking, J. A., E. J. Brook, S. Shackleton, J. P. Severinghaus, M. Dyonisius, V. Petrenko, J. R. McConnell, R. H. Rhodes, T. K. Bauska, D. Baggenstos, S. Marcott, S. Barker, 2019. Spatial pattern of accumulation at Taylor Dome during the last glacial inception. Climate of the Past, 15, 1537–1556, doi:10.5194/cp-15-1537-2019

Yang, X, M. M. Frey, R. H. Rhodes, S. J. Norris, I. M. Brooks, P. S. Anderson, K. Nishimura, A. E. Jones, E. W. Wolff, 2019. The sea-salt aerosol (SSA) source from blowing snow on sea ice: production mechanisms and climate implications. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 19, 8407–8424, doi:10.5194/acp-19-8407-2019

Sime, L., P. Hopcroft, R. H. Rhodes, 2019. The impact of abrupt sea ice loss on Greenland water isotopes during the Last Glacial Period. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,116 (10) 4099-4104, doi:10.1073/pnas.1807261116.


P. C. Tzedakis, Drysdale, R. N., Margari, V., Skinner, L., Menviel, L. Rhodes, R. H. et al., 2018. Enhanced climate instability in the North Atlantic and S Europe during the Last Interglacial. Nature Communications 9:4235

A. Landais, Capron, E., Masson-Delmotte, V., Toucanne, S., Rhodes, R. H. et al., 2018. Ice core evidence for mid-latitude atmospheric water cycle reorganization during the Greenland cold phase of the last deglaciation. Climate of the Past, 14, 1405-1415,

R. H. Rhodes, Yang, X., Wolff, E. W., 2018. Sea Ice Versus Storms: What Controls Sea Salt in Arctic Ice Cores? Geophysical Research Letters,


McConnell, J. R., and 30 authors including R. H. Rhodes, 2017. Volcanic eruptions precisely coincident with abrupt climate change ~17.7k years ago plausibly linked by stratospheric ozone loss. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1705595114

Rhodes, R. H., Yang, X., Wolff, E. W., McConnell, J. R., and Frey, M. M., 2017, Sea ice as a source of sea salt aerosol to Greenland ice cores: a model-based study, Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, 17, 9417-9433,

Rhodes, R. H., E. J. Brook, J. R. McConnell, T. Blunier, L. C. Sime, X. Faïn, R. Mulvaney, 2017. Atmospheric methane variability: Centennial scale signals in the Last Glacial Period.  Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 1, 575590, doi:10.1002/2016GB005570.

Maselli, O. J., Chellman, N. J., Grieman, M., Layman, L., McConnell, J. R., Pasteris, D., Rhodes, R. H., Saltzman, E., and Sigl, M., 2017. Sea ice and pollution-modulated changes in Greenland ice core methanesulfonate and bromine, Climate of the Past, 13, 39-59, doi:10.5194/cp-13-39-2017.


Rhodes, R. H., X. Faïn, E. J. Brook, J. R. McConnell, M. Sigl, O. Maselli, J. Edwards, C. Buizert, T. Blunier, J. Chappellaz, J. Freitag, 2016. Local artifacts in ice core methane records caused by layered bubble trapping and in-situ production: a multi-site investigation. Climate of the Past, 12, 1061-1077, doi:10.5194/cp-12-1061-2016.

Sigl, M. and 26 authors including R. H. Rhodes, 2016. The WAIS Divide deep ice core WD2014 chronology – Part 2: Annual-layer counting (0-31 ka BP). Climate of the Past, 12, 769-786, doi:10.5194/cp-12-769-2016.


Rhodes, R. H., E. J. Brook, J. Chiang, T. Blunier, O. J. Maselli, J. R. McConnell, D. Romanini, J. P. Severinghaus, 2015. Enhanced tropical methane production in response to iceberg discharge in the North Atlantic. Science, 1016-1019. 10.1126/science.1262005.

***WAIS Divide continuous methane data are available to download at USAP data centre: awardID 609628**

WAIS Divide Project Members including R. H. Rhodes, 2015. Precise interhemispheric phasing of the bipolar seesaw during abrupt Dansgaard-Oeschger events. Nature, 520, 661-665.

Mitchell, L. E., C. Buizert, E. J. Brook, D. Breton, J. Fegyveresi, D. Baggenstos, A. Orsi, J. Severinghaus, R. B. Alley, M. Albert, R. H. Rhodes, J. R. McConnell, M. Sigl, O. Maselli, S. Gregory, J. Ahn, 2015. Observing and modeling the influence of layering on bubble trapping in polar firn. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 120, doi:10.1002/2014JD022766.

Buizert, C., K. M. Cuffey, J. P. Severinghaus, D. Baggentos, T. J. Fudge, E. J. Steig, B. R. Markle, M. Winstrup, R. H. Rhodes et al., 2015. The WAIS-Divide deep ice core WD2014 chronology - Part 1: Methane synchronization (68–31 ka BP) and the gas age-ice age difference. Climate of the Past, 11, 153–173.

2014 and earlier

Faïn, X., J. Chappellaz, R. H. Rhodes, C. Stowasser, T. Blunier, J. R. McConnell, E. J. Brook, M. Legrand, T. Debois, D. Romanini, 2014. High resolution measurements of carbon monoxide along a late Holocene Greenland ice core: evidence for in-situ production. Climate of the Past, 10, 987–1000.

Rhodes, R. H., X. Faïn, C. Stowasser, T. Blunier, J. Chappellaz, J. R. McConnell, D. Romanini, L. E. Mitchell, E. J. Brook, 2013.  Continuous methane measurements from a late-Holocene Greenland ice core: atmospheric and in-situ signals. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 368, 9–19.

Rhodes, R. H., N. A. N. Bertler, J. A. Baker, H. C. Steen-Larsen, S. B. Sneed, U. Morgenstern, S. J. Johnsen, 2012.  Little Ice Age climate and oceanic conditions of the Ross Sea, Antarctica, from a coastal ice core record. Climate of the Past, 8, 1223–1238. [PDF]

Rhodes, R. H., J. A. Baker, M-A. Millet, N. A. N. Bertler, 2011. Experimental investigation of the effects of mineral dust on the reproducibility and accuracy of ice core trace element analyses. Chemical Geology, 286, 207222doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2011.05.006

Purdie, H., N. A. N. Bertler, A. Mackintosh, J. A. Baker, R. H. Rhodes, 2010. Isotopic and elemental changes in winter snow accumulation on glaciers in the Southern Alps of New Zealand. Journal of Climate 23, doi: 10.1175/2010JCLI3701.1

Rhodes, R. H., N. A. N. Bertler, J. A. Baker, S. B. Sneed, H. Oerter, K. R. Arrigo, 2009. Sea ice variability and primary productivity in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, from methylsulphonate snow record. Geophysical Research Letters 36, L10704, doi:10.1029/2009GL037311.


>>>>>>>>>Other publications<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Patterson, M., R. Rhodes, and C. Allen (2019), Understanding past changes in Southern Ocean sea ice, Eos (American Geophysical Union Publications), 100, doi:/10.1029/2019EO119803.

Rhodes, R. H., Kohfeld, K., Bostock, H., Crosta, X., Leventer, A., Meissner, K., Esper, O., Understanding Past Changes in Sea Ice in the Southern Ocean: First Workshop for the “Cycles of Sea Ice Dynamics in the Earth System” (C-SIDE) Working Group. Past Global Changes(PAGES) Magazine, 21(1), 31, doi:10.22498/pages.27.1.31.


Assistant Professor
Honorary Researcher, British Antarctic Survey
Dr Rachael H. Rhodes

Contact Details

Email address: 
Downing Site
Room: S211
(+44) 01233 333380
Takes PhD students


Person keywords: 
palaeoclimate reconstructions
Stable isotopes
Computer Simulations